Victoria University

Referencing for students: VU Harvard style

Using Harvard

Introduction to Harvard

Important: this is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Harvard is an author-date referencing style.

Harvard style requires in-text references and the reference list.

In-text references appear within the body of the document. They include the author(s) family name and the year of publication, with extra details if required, such as page numbers.

A reference list provides full details of all in-text references at the end of the document.

Additional resources

Download the RMIT University Harvard referencing guide (DOCX, 50.8 KB) Opens in new window .

Harvard referencing for visual materials Opens in new window .

RMIT University referencing guides Opens in new window .

Using Harvard

General rules for in-text references

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

Do not overuse direct quotes.

Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots (...) and another space. For example: Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas ... will require coherent change strategies'.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas as hazard reduction, resource use, waste, pollution, etc. will require coherent change strategies'.

Middle of a sentence

In a post about the emotions involved in undertaking a literature review, the Thesis Whisper (2013, para. 16) notes that 'elation when you realise you know more than your supervisor about your topic and you feel brave enough to argue about it' is one of the top five PhD emotions.

End of a sentence

'Results broadly apply to managers in the tourism, hospitality, and service industries' (Hosany & Martin 2012, Managerial implications section).

Block quotations

Quotes of more than 30 words in length are known as block quotations.

Block quotes need to start on a new line, be indented from the text margin and set in smaller text size without single inverted commas (quotation marks).

At the end of the quote, include the reference details such as author name, year and page number(s) in parentheses.

Khoo's PhD research project in the area of architecture investigated:

the application of alternative multifunctional material systems with possible form-changing and responsive capacities. These are integrated with physical computational processes for responsive morphing architectural design as an ‘integrated’ and ‘synergetic’ entity identical to single moulded devices such as the solid-state door handles developed by the automobile industry (2013, p. 10).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Ahmadjian (2006) noted that there has been disagreement over the influence of Japanese business groups on the economy.

Middle of a sentence

Based on the novel of the same name, Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky (2010) follows the relationship between Coco Chanel and Igor Stravinsky.

End of a sentence

The City of Melbourne's population increased by 10.5 percent in the period between July 2012 and June 2013 (Martin 2014).

Using Harvard

Multiple works by the same author(s) in the same year

Identify works by the same author in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth, to the year in both the in-text reference and the reference list entry.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Jamison (1991a, 1991b) provides chiropractic information for diagnosing and health promotion.

Reference list entry

In the reference list, identify works by the same author(s) in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth to the year (for example: 1991a).

Try to identify the sequence in which the works were published. If the sequence cannot be determined, put the references in alphabetical order by title.

Jamison, JR 1991a, Diagnostic decision making in clinical practice, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Jamison, JR 1991b, Health promotion for chiropractic practice, Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD.

Using Harvard

Referencing Works by different first authors with the same family name

In a single document, to identify works by different first authors with the same family name insert the initials of the first author’s given name(s).

It is argued that ... (Fitzgerald, B 2010) but A. Fitzgerald and Eliades (2015) claim that ... .

Reference list entry

In the reference list, order works by different first authors with the same family name by the year of publication.

Fitzgerald, A & Eliades, D 2015, Introduction to property law, Thomson Reuters, Pyrmont, NSW.

Fitzgerald, B 2010, 'Creative commons', Telecommunication Journal of Australia, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 63.1-63.18.

Using Harvard

Multiple references in the same parentheses

When including two or more references in the same parentheses in a sentence, list all references alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon (;).

It has been claimed that… (Carroll 2012; Chalkley et al. 2012; Kuratko, Goldsby & Hornsby 2012).

Using Harvard

Personal communication

Include personal communication, such as face-to-face interviews, conversations, telephone calls, letters or emails, in an in-text reference.

Information about personal communication must be included in the in-text reference. Include the type of personal communication (for example: personal conversation, email, interview, telephone conversation) and the date in a date-month-year format.

Personal conversation can be abbreviated to pers. conv. and a telephone conversation can be abbreviated to tel. conv.

However, personal communication references do not need to be included in the reference list.

My field placement supervisor commented ‘… ‘ (CM Burns 2014, pers. conv., 20 April).

Ms Merrick (Melville Shire Council CEO) confirmed the details by email on 25 April 2014.

Using Harvard

Secondary citation

Use a secondary citation to acknowledge the work of an author(s) that has been directly quoted or paraphrased in another author(s) work.

In the in-text reference, include the original source of information and the source you have used. For example, if an article by Hosany and Martin cites Heath and Scott, refer to both Heath & Scott and Hosany & Martin.

Early research indicated... (Heath & Scott, cited in Hosany & Martin 2012).

Heath and Scott (cited in Hosany & Martin 2012) claim that...

In the reference list, include only the source you have used. In this example, you would only need to include the Hosany and Martin reference.

Hosany, S & Martin, D 2012, ‘Self-image congruence in consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 685-691.

Using Harvard

General rules for the reference list

Place of publication

If the place of publication is not commonly known (for example: Harlow) or the place of publication could be located in two or more countries, additional information is required.

For Australia and the United States, add the abbreviated name of the State.

Fitzroy, VIC or Delmar, NY

For the United Kingdom, add the abbreviation UK.

Harlow, UK

For other countries, add the name of the country.

Using Harvard

Example of a reference list

Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, DVD, journal article, legislation, newspaper article, report, social media entry and thesis.

Reference List

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Measures of Australia's progress: summary indicators, cat. no. 1370.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed 23 July 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/1370.0.55.001?opendocument#from-banner=LN>.

Carney, S 2012, 'Gillard paying price for gamble on the numbers', The Age, 26 May, p. 23, viewed 27 September 2016, ProQuest database.

Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, DVD, Madman Entertainment, Richmond, VIC, directed by Jan Kounen.

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth).

Jamison, JR 1991a, Diagnostic decision making in clinical practice, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD.

Jamison, JR 1991b, Health promotion for chiropractic practice, Aspen, Gaithersburg, MD.

Khoo, CK 2013, 'Morphing architecture with responsive material systems', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, <https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:160591>.

Lewis, B & Lewis, J 2015, Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Smith, P 2015, Rethinking higher education: the team is everything, Facebook, 25 April, viewed 16 June 2015, <https://www.facebook.com/pages/Peter-P-Smith/196037770427320>.

'Tackling knife crime' 2010, The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9747, p. 1118.

Taylor, CM, Karunaratne, CV & Xie, N 2012, 'Glycosides of hydroxyproline: some recent, unusual discoveries', Glycobiology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 757-767.

World Health Organization 2014, WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables, World Health Organization, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/>.

Book with a single author

Book with one author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Cannon (2012, p. 165) argues that 'changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas as hazard reduction, resource use, waste, pollution, etc. will require coherent change strategies'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

It is argued that strategies will need to be implemented to change how the areas of hazard reduction, waste and pollution are managed (Cannon 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Cannon, T 2012, Corporate responsibility: governance, compliance and ethics in a sustainable environment, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.

Book with an edition number

For a book with an edition number, add the number and the abbreviation ‘edn’ after the title of the book.

There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned.

Reference list entry

Cannon, T 2012, Corporate responsibility: governance, compliance and ethics in a sustainable environment, 2nd edn, Pearson Education, Harlow, UK.

Book whose author is an organisation

Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author.

Direct quote

It is critical to 'get the policy settings right so that the private sector is able to resume its position and take over from government as the primary driver of economic growth' (Business Council of Australia 2010, p. 7).

Paraphrase

Business Council of Australia (2010) is in favour of stopping the stimulus and increasing productivity through job creation.

Reference list entry

Business Council of Australia 2010, Balancing act: fiscal and policy priorities to support growth: BCA budget submission 2010-11, Business Council of Australia, Melbourne.

Book with no known author

In place of the author, reference the book title and the year. Italicise the book title.

Direct quote

Higher education in Australia: the facts (2004, p. 23) claims that Australia is "a major provider of international education and training services".

Paraphrasing

Australia has a growing role in the education of international students (Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004).

Reference list entry

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the book (italicised), followed by the year, publisher and place of publication.

Higher education in Australia: the facts 2004, Business/Higher Education Round Table, Fitzroy, VIC.

Book with multiple authors

List authors in the order they are listed in the book.

Two or three authors

Use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Lewis and Lewis (2015, p. 4) argue 'that the media is implicated in all health promotion strategies'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

To assist with health promotion, health care workers need an understanding of the media (Lewis & Lewis 2015).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Lewis, B & Lewis, J 2015, Health communication: a media and cultural studies approach, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Four or more authors

For in-text citations, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year.

Direct quote

Haslam et al. (2013, p. 78) argues 'that wealth accumulation matters, because it provides the financial foundation upon which to secure income...'.

Paraphrasing

Accounting numbers are used as a managerial tool (Haslam et al. 2013).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Haslam, C, Andersson, T, Tsitsianis, N & Yin, YP 2013, Redefining business models: strategies for a financialized world, Routledge, Abingdon, UK.

Multiple books by the same author

Order the citations of two or more works by placing the publication years after the author name in chronological order.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The adoption of creative industries has been driven by policy disclosure (Flew 2013, 2014).

Reference list entry

Arrange works by the same author by year of publication, with the earliest year first. Use the initial of the author's given name(s).

Flew, T 2013, Global creative industries, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK.

Flew, T 2014, New media, 4th edn, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne.

Books

Book chapter

If there is no chapter author, use the title of the chapter instead of the author details in the in-text reference and in the reference list.

If you use an edited book (where the chapters have no identifying author(s) details) in an in-text reference, use the editor(s) family name(s) as the author(s).

Direct quote in-text

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Business groups have been seen as both the powerhouses behind Japanese industrialization and the culprits behind Japan’s decade-long inertia' (Ahmadjian 2006, p. 29).

Paraphrasing in-text

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Ahmadjian (2006) noted that there has been disagreement over the influence of Japanese business groups on the economy.

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Ahmadjian, CL 2006, 'Japanese business groups: continuity in the face of change', in S Chang (ed.), Business groups in East Asia: financial crisis, restructuring, and new growth, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 29-51.

Edited book

Generally, an edited book will only appear in a bibliography list. A bibliography is used to list any other sources that you have read but not included in your writing. Check with your lecturer/teacher or supervisor if you need to provide a bibliography.

In the bibliography list, for an edited book, add (ed.) for a single editor and (eds) for two or more editors.

If you have used an edited book as part of an in-text reference and need to add the book details to a reference list, use the same format as the bibliography list entry.

Bibliography list entry

Lubkin, IM & Larsen, PD (eds) 2013, Chronic illness: impact and interventions, 8th edn, Jones & Bartlett Learning, Burlington, MA.

Books

E-books with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed books.

E-book from a Library database [HTML format]

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading or chapter number. The word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

'A contested concept like online game addiction has many stakeholders, and academic discourse is only one of many that influence how we think about this topic' (Karlsen 2013, p. 29).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The topic of online gaming addiction can be considered through academic disclosure and other stakeholders (Karlsen 2013).

Reference list entry

For e-books in HTML format and sourced from Victoria University Library databases, use the name of the e-book collection (for example: ProQuest Ebook Central database) instead of the place of publication.

Karlsen, F 2013, A world of excesses: online games and excessive playing, Routledge, ProQuest Ebook Central database.

For e-books sourced from e-readers, replace the place of publication with the name of the e-reader device (for example: Kindle).

E-book from a website [HTML format]

Direct quote

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, chapter number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para. and the word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

Shann (1948, ch. 1) argues that 'neither legal restrictions nor isolation made the "settlers from convicts" better able to read the riddle of agriculture in a climate fruitful at times but fatally capricious'.

Paraphrasing

The work by Shann (1948) provides a history of Australia's economy at the time of Governor Phillip.

Reference list entry

For e-books in HTML format and sourced from the internet, add the viewed date (for example: viewed 16 November 2016) and the URL address enclosed in angled brackets (< and >) rather than the place of publication.

Shann, E 1948, An economic history of Australia, Cambridge University Press, viewed 16 November 2016, <http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks13/1300861h.html#ch-0>.

Books

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author

If there is no author, cite the encyclopedia or dictionary title and the year. Italicise the encyclopedia or dictionary title.

An encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

The ABC system is used 'to explain the genetic control of floral organ determination during flower development' (Dictionary of biology 2014, ABC model entry).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

During flower development, the ABC model is often used to explain how four genes can change a flower organ into another form (Dictionary of biology 2014).

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry with an author

Direct quote

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

'Focused reflection is a key element of most action research models. One activity essential to reflection is referred to as metacognition, or thinking about thinking' (Adams 2010, Action research entry).

Paraphrasing

When undertaking action research, the researcher reflects on the research process and what has been learnt in practice (Adams 2010).

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Adams, P 2010, 'Action research', in NJ Salkind (ed.) Encyclopedia of research design, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

For an encyclopedia or dictionary in HTML format and sourced from an Victoria University Library database, use the name of the database (for example: Oxford Reference database) instead of the place of publication.

Books

As details will vary for brochures, exhibition catalogues or pamphlets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If there is no author, cite the publication title and the year. Italicise the publication title.

Brochure or pamphlet

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading.

'Co-tenancy is the most common type of shared housing arrangement' (Tenants Union of Victoria 2010, Co-tenancy section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The shared household fact sheet provides information for people sharing a house or unit (Tenants Union of Victoria 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Tenants Union of Victoria 2010, Shared households, pamphlet, Tenants Union of Victoria, Fitzroy, VIC.

Exhibition catalogue

Direct quote

Di Trocchio et al. (2011, p. 9) state that 'ManStyle is the first exhibition in Australia to focus on international and Australian men's fashion from the eighteenth century to the present'.

Paraphrasing

A traditional style of suit is the double-breasted pinstripe in navy (Di Trocchio et al. 2011).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Di Trocchio, P, Jocic, L, Leong, R, Somerville, K & Whitfield, D 2011, Manstyle: men + fashion, exhibition catalogue, 11 March - 27 November, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Journal article with a single author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Fazel (2015, p. 260) found that 'a key moment of adjustment for refugee and asylum seeking students lies in the process of recognition by peers'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Having mental health services based in schools can be beneficial for refugee students in adjusting to a new life (Fazel 2015).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Fazel, M 2015, 'A moment of change: facilitating refugee children's mental health in UK schools', International Journal of Educational Development, vol. 41, pp. 255-261.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume, issue (if supplied), page details.

`Tackling knife crime' 2010, The Lancet, vol. 376, no. 9747, p. 1118.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

Journal article with two or three authors

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Sustainability engineering can be broadly defined as the integration of sustainability issues in the various activities associated with engineering practice' (Gagnon, Leduc & Savard 2012, p. 50).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

In engineering, the definition of sustainable development will change as different interpretations of the concept are utilised (Gagnon, Leduc & Savard 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Gagnon, B, Leduc, R & Savard, L 2012, 'From a conventional to a sustainable engineering design process: different shades of sustainability', Journal of Engineering Design, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 49-74.

Journal articles

Journal articles with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are referenced in the same way as printed journal articles.

Journal article with four or more authors

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Provide scientists and scientific institutions with insights into the ingredients of successful social media engagement in science communication' (Hwong et al. 2017, p. 480).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Hwong et al. (2017) found that using photographs, videos and hashtags on Twitter is beneficial when engaging with the science community.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Hwong, Y-L, Oliver, C, Van Kranedonk, M, Sammut, C & Seroussi, Y 2017, 'What makes you tick? The psychology of social media engagement in space science communication', Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 68, pp. 480-492.

Journal article

Article from a Library online database [HTML format]

Articles from Library databases with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are cited in the same way as articles from printed journals.

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Results broadly apply to managers in the tourism, hospitality, and service industries' (Hosany & Martin 2012, Managerial implications section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The expectation of tourists ... (Hosany & Martin 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Hosany, S & Martin, D 2012, ‘Self-image congruence in consumer behavior’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 685-691, viewed 27 May 2012, Elsevier SD Freedom Collection database.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), page numbers (if available), viewed date, Database name.

Journal articles

Article from a webpage [HTML format]

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) (for example (`Tackling knife crime' 2010)).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Ogilvy (2011, para. 13) is 'less concerned with the means, or with issues of equity, than with the aspiration in the first place'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Ogilvy (2011) suggests that the tools and techniques for human enhancement need to be selected more carefully.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Ogilvy, J 2011, 'Human enhancement and the computational metaphor', Journal of Evolution & Technology, vol. 22, no. 1, viewed 11 June 2012, <http://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm>.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), viewed date, URL address.

Newspaper articles

Printed newspaper article with no author

If there is no author, reference the newspaper title and the date and year (for example: 2 October 2016). Italicise the newspaper title.

A newspaper article without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Australia's aged-care system is revealing itself to be all too frequently woefully ineffective in meeting the needs of those who rely on its services' (The Sunday Age 2 October 2016, p. 25).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Aged care providers are starting to introduce new fee schemes in response to changes to Federal government funding (The Sunday Age 2 October 2016).

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Printed newspaper article with a known author

Direct quote

'Australians are piling into Melbourne's central business district at a record rate' (Martin 2014, p. 2).

Paraphrasing

The City of Melbourne's population increased by 10.5 percent in the period between July 2012 and June 2013 (Martin 2014).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Martin, P 2014, 'Melbourne tops nation's growth rate: population record rise in city dwellers', The Age, 7 April, p. 2.

Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a Library database [HTML format]

Newspaper articles from Library databases with full-page format/imaging (PDF) are cited in the same way as printed newspaper articles.

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a Library database, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Carney (2012, p. 23) stated that 'it [was not] enough that Gillard would produce the measures that Wilkie wanted, she also had to guarantee that they would become law'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Gillard government ... (Carney 2012).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Carney, S 2012, 'Gillard paying price for gamble on the numbers', The Age, 26 May, p. 23, viewed 27 September 2016, ProQuest database.


Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a webpage [HTML format]

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a webpage, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'There is also the risk that the tweeting citizen journalist, unaware of court reporting laws, may include material which should be excluded' (Banks 2010, para. 8).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Guidelines for the use of social media tools in courts ... (Banks 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Banks, D 2010, 'Tweeting in court: why reporters must be given guidelines', The Guardian, 15 December, viewed 25 November 2015, <http://www.theguardian.com/law/2010/dec/15/tweeting-court-reporters-julian-assange>.

Social media or webpages

Blog or blog post

A blog or blog post is usually referenced as you would a webpage.

If there is no author(s) name use the username instead (for example: Thesis Whisperer).

List the format of the entry (for example: blog or blog post).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 13 January, 4.25 am).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Include the location of the direct quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

In a post about the emotions involved in undertaking a literature review, the Thesis Whisperer (2013, para. 16) notes that one of the top five PhD emotions is 'elation when you realise you know more than your supervisor about your topic and you feel brave enough to argue about it'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

When undertaking a literature review ... (Thesis Whisperer 2013).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Thesis Whisperer 2013, 'Wormhole literature', The Thesis Whisperer, blog post, 3 April, viewed 8 January 2014, <http://thesiswhisperer.com/2013/04/03/the-wormhole-incident/>.

Webber, S & Boon, S 2006, Information literacy blog, blog, viewed 8 January 2014, <http://information-literacy.blogspot.com>.

Social media or webpages

Social media entry

Social media is usually referenced as you would a website.

If there is no author’s name use the username instead.

List the name of the platform (for example: Facebook, Twitter).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 13 January, 4.25 am).

For social media accounts that are not publicly accessible (for example: a private Facebook page), the social media entry should be referenced as personal communication.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

In relation to the Supreme Court vacancy in the United States, the Barack Obama Twitter account stated that 'it [is] time for Senate leaders to put politics aside and fill the Supreme Court vacancy' (Obama 2016).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Peter Smith (2015) updated his Facebook page on the 25 April with a link to...

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Obama, B 2016, It’s time for Senate leaders to put politics aside …, Twitter, 17 May, viewed 19 May 2016, <https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/732589315478290432>.

Smith, P 2015, Rethinking higher education the team is everything, Facebook, 25 April, viewed 16 June 2015, <https://www.facebook.com/pages/Peter-P-Smith/196037770427320>.

Social media or webpages

Webpage or document

As details will vary for webpages or web documents, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If a webpage or web document does not have an author(s) (individual or corporate), start with the title of the document in italics followed by the date. If there is no date, use n.d.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

The tables are intended 'to aid technical decisions with respect to the national vaccination schedule' (World Health Organization 2014, para. 8).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

For immunization program recommendations refer to the information maintained by the World Health Organization (World Health Organization 2014).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

World Health Organization 2014, WHO recommendations for routine immunization - summary tables, World Health Organization, viewed 1 May 2014, <http://www.who.int/immunization/policy/immunization_tables/en/>.

Author is an organisation

The author may be the same as the organisation hosting the website.

The author can also be the publisher. For example: World Health Organization.

Unknown date

The abbreviation n.d. may be used where there is no known date.

Reports and standards

ABS report from the ABS website

For author details, use the full name of the Australian Bureau of Statistics rather than the abbreviation ABS.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'A major driving force in human activity is the desire for optimal health, better living conditions and improved quality of life' (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Society section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) the life expectancy for a female born in 2010 will be 84 years.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011, Measures of Australia's progress: summary indicators, cat. no. 1370.0.55.001, ABS, Canberra, viewed 23 July 2012, <http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/mf/1370.0.55.001?opendocument#from-banner=LN>.

For an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) report with full-page format/imaging (PDF), no need to include a viewed date or URL address as part of the reference list entry.

Reports and standards

Government or organisation report from a website

Government reports may include departmental reports, reports of commissions of inquiry, committees of review and committees of parliament.

As details will vary for government or organisation reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

This 'review provides an opportunity to reflect on the lessons that can be learned from the first five years of the TEQSA Act’s operation' (Department of Education and Training 2016, para. 3).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The review into the impact of the Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency Act 2011 will examine ... (Department of Education and Training 2016).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Department of Education and Training 2016, Review of the impact on the higher education sector of the TEQSA Act, viewed 16 December 2016, <https://www.education.gov.au/review-impact-higher-education-sector-teqsa-act>.

For a Government or organisation report with full-page format/imaging (PDF), no need to include a viewed date or URL address as part of the reference list entry.

Amnesty International 2017, Europe a perfect storm: The failure of European policies in the central Mediterranean, Amnesty International, London.

Reports and Standards

Standard from the Standards Australia database

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'For single or upper storey construction, the spacing of bracing elements, measured at right angles to elements, shall not exceed 9000 mm' (Standards Australia 2010, p. 11).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

For procedures and practices relating to timber framed constructions in non-cyclonic areas refer to ... (Standards Australia 2010).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Standards Australia 2010, Residential timber-framed construction - non-cyclonic areas, AS 1684.2-2010, viewed 28 September 2012, SAI Global database.

Reports and Standards

Company, industry or market report from a Library database

As details will vary for company, industry or market reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Internet services are provided via dial-up, integrated services digital network (ISDN) and fixed broadband connections' (Lo 2016, p. 2).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Lo (2016) claims that the industry will increase ...

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Lo, B 2016, Internet service providers in Australia, report No. J5911, industry report, IBISWorld, viewed 6 October 2016, IBISWorld database.

Where there is no author, use the organisation responsible for the report.

MarketLine Limited 2015, Credit cards in Canada, industry profile, MarketLine Limited, viewed 6 October 2016, MarketLine database.

Company, industry or market report from a website

As details will vary for company, industry or market reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Where there is no author, use the name of the company or organisation responsible for the report.

Direct quote

'Coles is our largest consumer business and its relationship with food and grocery suppliers in Australia continues to be the focus of some attention' (WesFarmers Limited 2015, Sourcing section).

Paraphrase

Wesfarmers Limited (2015) are wanting to engage with the community to limit environmental impact.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Wesfarmers Limited 2015, Sustainability report 2015, company report, Wesfarmers Limited, viewed 16 April 2016, <http://sustainability.wesfarmers.com.au/>.

Audiovisual materials

DVD film or television program

Reference the title of the film or television program in italics followed by the date of the production.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the film or television program. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

'You [are] not an artist, Coco. You [are] a shopkeeper' (Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Based on the novel of the same name, Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky (2010) follows the relationship between Coco Chanel and Igor Stravinsky.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Coco Chanel & Igor Stravinsky 2010, DVD, Madman Entertainment, Richmond, VIC, directed by Jan Kounen.

When plans change (part 1) 2016, television program, Australian Story, ABC TV, Sydney, 17 October.

Audiovisual materials

Podcast

If the author(s) of the podcast is unknown, reference the title of the podcast and the year of the broadcast. Italicise the podcast title.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Isherwood (2012) stated that 'problem solving drives creativity ...'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

In a guest lecture, Isherwood (2012) spoke about creativity in advertising.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Isherwood, B 2012, Where ideas come from, podcast, 12 September, viewed 5 June 2014, <http//itunesu.rmit.edu.au/node/862>.

Fidler, R 2016, Tim Ferguson: why comedy is not just for laughs, radio program, 702 ABC Radio, Sydney, 16 December, viewed 20 December 2016, <https://radio.abc.net.au/programitem/pe8LwEmpX3>.

Audiovisual materials

Streaming video / YouTube video

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is known, reference the video by the author(s) family or corporate name and the year of the video.

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is unknown, reference the title of the video (in italics) and the year of the video.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the video. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

'Subject guides are mini-websites for each subject area. They show you all the best places to look for information on what [you are] studying' (RMIT University 2014).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Design & thinking: a documentary on design thinking (2012) explores the concept of what is design thinking.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Design & thinking: a documentary on design thinking 2012, streaming video, Muris Media, San Francisco, viewed 23 March 2014, <https://rmit-kanopystreaming-com.ezproxy.lib.rmit.edu.au/video/design-and-thinking>.

RMIT University 2014, What’s a library subject guide?, YouTube, 8 October, RMIT University, Melbourne, viewed 18 April 2016, <https://youtu.be/IXo58MojuKI>.

Audiovisual materials

Sound Recording

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording (for example: album or CD) is known, reference the sound recording by the artist(s) family name or band name and the year of the sound recording.

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording is unknown, reference the title of the sound recording (in italics) and the year of the sound recording.

Generally, the title of the album or CD will be included in the in-text reference. However, if you have only listened to a single track, then the name of the single track will be included in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the sound recording. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

The first line of Patti Smith's version of Gloria 'Jesus died for somebody's sins but not mine' is interpreted as ... (Smith 1975).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Patti Smith’s 1975 album Horses is interpreted as her introduction to the punk movement (Smith 1975).

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Album or CD

Smith, P 1975, Horses, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York.

Single track

Smith, P 1975, Gloria, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York.

Online

Smith, P 1975, Horses, sound recording, Arista Records LLC, New York, viewed 5 September 2017, <https://itunes.apple.com/au/album/horses/id1038568061>.

Referencing a television program

Direct quote

Dr Peter McIntosh from CSIRO explains the current drought is having a greater impact because "climate change is warming Australia, and the warmer it gets, the more evaporation you get so the same amount of rainfall is less effective for farmers" (Winds of change 2008).

Paraphrasing

Australian experts agree that the current drought is having a greater negative impact on farms because climate change is creating higher rates of evaporation of rainfall (Winds of change 2008).

Reference list entry

Note that 'program' spelling is preferred over 'programme'.

Winds of change 2008, [television program], Four Corners, ABC Television, 17 March.

Images

Image

An image can be a photograph, a diagram or figure, a graph or table, a map or original artwork.

For information on how to reference an image, refer to the Library’s guide on Harvard Referencing for Visual Materials Opens in a new window .

To reference an original piece of artwork that has been viewed, refer to the Original Artworks Opens in a new window tab.

To reference a figure or table (including data in a table), refer to the Figures and Tables Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a book, refer to the Images within Books Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a Library database, refer to the Images from a Database Opens in a new window tab.

To reference an image (such as a photograph) from a webpage, refer to the Images on the Internet Opens in a new window tab.

To reference a map, refer to the Maps Opens in a new window tab.

For an example of a reference list using images, refer to the Example reference list/Bibliography Opens in a new window tab.

Other sources

Generally, conference papers are published within conference proceedings, either online or in print. In most cases, a conference paper (rather than the conference proceedings) will be used as a reference.

As details will vary for conference papers, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Conference paper from a webpage

A conference paper from a webpage will generally be sourced from the conference's website or the website of the organisation hosting the conference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or a section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Focusing on self-leadership skill awareness and development, the unit thus requires that students engage in a critical self-reflection process' (Gudmundsson & Laing 2011, p. 108).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Gudmunsson and Laing (2011) argue that for a successful blended learning environment students need support.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Gudmundsson, A & Laing, L 2011, ‘Facilitating student self-reflection in a blended learning environment', in ATN Assessment Conference 2011 Proceedings, Curtin University, Perth, 20 – 21 October, pp. 107-16, viewed 5 August 2016, <http://ctl.curtin.edu.au/events/conferences/atna2011/files/ATNA_2011_Proceedings.pdf>.

Conference paper from a Library database

For conference papers sourced from Victoria University Library databases provide:

Chaudhary, B 2015, ‘Unconventional methods for space debris removal', Space Safety is No Accident The 7th IAASS Conference, Springer International Publishing, SpringerLink eBook database, pp. 49-58.

For conference papers sourced from printed conference proceedings, use the guidelines for a chapter from an edited book.

If the title of the conference proceedings contains the name of the conference, capitalise the name of the conference. For example: Geospatial data in a changing world selected papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science.

Wang, J, Wood, Z & Worboys, M 2016, 'Conflict in pedestrian networks' in T Sarjakoski, MY Santos & LT Sarjakoski (eds), Geospatial data in a changing world selected papers of the 19th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science, Springer, Switzerland, pp. 261-278.

Other sources

Online dataset

As details will vary for datasets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If available, include a reference point (for example: figure number or table number) in the in-text reference for the dataset. The word figure can be abbreviated to fig.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the material from the dataset in your own words.

Using the daily rainfall dataset ... (Bureau of Meteorology 2016).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Bureau of Meteorology 2016, High-quality Australian daily rainfall, Australia's climate change datasets, data file, Australian Government, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, viewed 16 December 2016, <ftp://ftp.bom.gov.au/anon/home/ncc/www/change/HQdailyR/>.

Other sources

Materials from your course

Materials from your course may include lecture notes, PowerPoint slides or presentations.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, section heading or slide number. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

By the end of the course, 'students will be able to read a newspaper article in Italian'... (Sample 2016, Learning outcomes section).

Giving consideration to the 'cultural, economic and social issues of indigenous communities is an important step in the decision making process ... ' (Sample 2017, slide 4).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Sample (2016) outlines the topics to be covered this semester.

The rights of indigenous people include ... (Sample 2017).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Sample, S 2016, 'Introduction to your course', lecture notes, COURSECODE, RMIT University, viewed 18 April 2016, <https://my.rmit.edu.au/portal/myStudies/#/lecturenotes/week1>.

Sample, S 2017, 'Human rights in indigenous communities' PowerPoint slides, COURSECODE, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Other sources

Thesis viewed online

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

Khoo (2013, p. 4) argues that 'the idea of a responsive and form-changing architectural surface challenges the materiality of a physical architecture'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The research conducted by Khoo (2013) examines ... .

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Khoo, CK 2013, 'Morphing architecture with responsive material systems', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne, <https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:160591>.

Thesis from a Library database

For a thesis sourced from a Library database, add the database name (for example: ProQuest database) rather than the URL address.

Hallaq, TG 2013, 'Evaluating online media literacy in higher education: validity and reliability of the digital online media literacy assessment (DOMLA)', EdD thesis, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, ProQuest database.

Print thesis

In the reference list provide:

Snelling, P 2013, 'Digital craftsmanship: the augmentation and customisation of printed textiles', PhD thesis, RMIT University, Melbourne.

Referencing for students: APA 6th ed. style

Using APA 6th ed.

Introduction to the APA 6th ed. referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

APA is an author-date referencing style. You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

APA style requires that all references in a document are to be cited in-text, and that all in-text citations are compiled in a reference list at the end of the document. In-text citations appear within the body of the document and include details such as author(s) family name, year of publication, and page number(s) (if applicable). The reference list must provide full details of all in-text citations, and be arranged alphabetically by author.

Additional resources

RMIT APA referencing guide (DOCX, 134 KB, 16 pages) Opens in new window - MS Word document for downloading or printing

APA style guide to electronic references (PDF, 2MB, 41 pages) Opens in new window - PDF document for downloading or printing (requires log in)

Victoria University Library Referencing Guides for printing Opens in new window - a full list of style guides used at RMIT

Using APA 6th ed.

General rules for in-text citations

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use round brackets to add the author(s) family name and the year of publication, or use the author(s) family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

Note: When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Note: Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

Note: Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks, and add a page number. Do NOT overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Note: Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form – without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new, indented line, and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details such as author(s), year and page number(s) in brackets.

The difference between intrinsic motivation and motivation to learn is closely related to the difference between affective and cognitive engagement experiences. Intrinsic motivation refers primarily to affective experience—enjoyment of the processes involved in engaging in an activity. In contrast, motivation to learn is primarily a cognitive experience involving attempts to make sense of the information that an activity conveys, to relate this information to prior knowledge, and to master the skills that the activity develops. (Brophy, 2010, p. 12)

Using APA 6th ed.

Multiple references in same parentheses

List all citations alphabetically, with a semi-colon to separate them.

There are indications that passive smoking is potentially threatening to health (Applebee, 2006; Cookson, 2007; Sheldon & James, 2004).

Using APA 6th ed.

Multiple works by same author in same year

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Using APA 6th ed.

Secondary citation

A secondary citation is used when you acknowledge the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work.

For example, if you read an article written by Hosany and Martin and they cite information from another study written by Heath and Scott, you would need to acknowledge Heath and Scott in the text:

Heath and Scott (as cited in Hosany & Martin, 2012) claim that . . .

Early research indicated . . . (Heath & Scott, as cited in Hosany & Martin, 2012).

In the reference list, you need to include the citation information for the Hosany and Martin article as that is where the Heath and Scott information was sourced:

Hosany, S., & Martin, D. (2012). Self-image congruence in consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 65(5), 685-691. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.03.015

Using APA 6th ed.

Personal communication

Information obtained from personal communication does NOT need to be included in the reference list, and should only be referenced in-text.

Examples of personal communication include:

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication/lecture took place.

K. Reimers' (personal communication, July 3, 2015) lecture on quantum mechanics dealt with . . .

The lecture on quantum mechanics raised several interesting points of discussion . . . (K. Reimers, personal communication, July 3, 2015).

Using APA 6th ed.

General rules for the reference list

Digital object identifier (DOI)

When citing electronic journal articles, you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated. A DOI is a unique identifier that is assigned to individual journal articles, and provides a persistent link to online content.

The recommended DOI format should appear in your reference list as:

1. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

It's also acceptable to use the older DOI formats:

2. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx

3. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

If no DOI is assigned, include the journal’s homepage URL instead.

Note: There is no full stop after the URL, and the hyperlink is removed.

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then include the state code or country name.

Cities in the USA and Canada need to include the two-letter abbreviation for the state or province.

Seattle, WA

Vancouver, BC

Cities in other countries (outside the USA and Canada) need to include the country name after the city.

Melbourne, Australia

Oxford, England

Using APA 6th ed.

Example of a reference list

Reference List

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

Book

Book with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Book

Book with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) identify . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory" (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Book

Book with three, four or five authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Kraemer, W. J., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2016). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and application (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Book

Book with six or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry the central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson.

Book

Book with eight or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

Book

Book with an edition number

Reference list

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation ed. in brackets after the book title. If the book is a first edition, or no edition is stated, do NOT include the edition number.

Mash, E. J., & Wolfe, D. A. (2013). Abnormal child psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Book

Edited book

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Quality of life is defined as . . . (Schirm, 2013).

Schirm (2013) defines quality of life as . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Quality of life assessments provide a way to evaluate the impact of chronic illness on clients and their families" (Schirm, 2013, p. 183).

Schirm (2013) comments that "quality of life assessments provide a way to evaluate the impact of chronic illness on clients and their families" (p. 183).

Reference list

Include all editor(s) initials then family names following the word, In (if there is a large editorial board use et al. after the first editor’s family name).

Also, enclose in brackets the edition number (if applicable), and include the page numbers of the chapter directly after the title.

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Book chapter

If the book is an authored (NOT edited) work, then reference it as a whole work, NOT by the book chapter.

For examples refer to the following relevant sections:

Book

E-book (from a database)

Paraphrasing in-text

When citing an e-book in-text, follow the same rules for citing a book in-text.

According to Crayton (2012), linear algebra can be used to . . .

. . . and is concerned with the study of vector spaces (Crayton, 2012).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the e-book.

"Any smooth manifold admits a Riemannian metric, which often helps to solve problems of differential topology" (Crayton, 2012, p. 15).

Reference list

Follow the same rules for citing a book, but provide a retrieval statement in the form of the database homepage URL.

Crayton, M. (2012). All the mathematics you missed. Retrieved from https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/

Journal article

Journal article with single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Musiek, 2017).

Musiek (2017) concludes that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Musiek (2017) notes that "if sleep nuclei are damaged, a robust circadian clock may still not trigger sleep" (p. 89).

Reference list

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Musiek, E. S. (2017). Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: A critical appraisal. Current Sleep Medicine Reports, 3(2), 85-92. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40675-017-0072-5

Journal article

Journal article with two authors

Paraphrasing in-text

The ampersand symbol & is used between the author family names only when they appear in brackets.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Journal article

Journal article with three, four or five authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Demacheva et al. (2012) note that . . .

If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

Journal article

Journal article with six or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Coertjens et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Coertjens et al. (2013) point out that "longitudinal research studies on the change in students' approaches to learning are on an increase" (p. 54).

Reference list

List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Coertjens, L., Van Daal, T., Donche, V., De Maeyer, S., Vanthournout, G., & Van Petegem, P. (2013). Analysing change in learning strategies over time: A comparison of three statistical techniques. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(1), 49-55. doi:10.1016/j.stueduc.2012.10.006

Journal article

Journal article with eight or more authors

Paraphrasing in-text

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

Journal article

Journal article without DOI

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

If citing a journal article without a DOI, include the volume, issue number (if available), and page number(s). If the journal article was retrieved online, include the URL of the journal homepage.

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

Newspaper article

Newspaper article from a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1641732086?accountid=13552

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The debate around health reform involves . . . (Baird, 2016).

Baird (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Baird (2016) points out that "recent studies have found much of our nursing population is approaching retirement – and quite alarmingly burnt out – at precisely the time the nursing needs of a broader ageing population is increasing" (para. 8).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

In order to avoid any potential non-working URLs, provide the newspaper homepage URL.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, print

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Official survey results indicate . . . (Parnell, 2016).

Parnell (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The latest Medicare figures, also released yesterday, show the proportion of non-referred GP services, excluding practice nurses, bulk-billed in the last quarter was 85.4 per cent" (Parnell, 2016, p. 1).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

Include the pagination by using p. for one page or pp. for multiple pages. If the article is spread across discontinuous pages, provide all page numbers separated by a comma e.g. pp. 2, 4, 8-9.

Parnell, S. (2016, November 16). Medicare freeze no check on GP visits. The Australian, pp. 1, 5.

Newspaper article

Newspaper article, no author

Paraphrasing in-text

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in capital letters with double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

Include the day, month and year of the article.

Place the title of the article in the author position, and provide the exact URL if taken from a database.

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1785632535?accountid=13552

Legal material

Act of Parliament

Paraphrasing in-text

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section number s. (if applicable) in brackets.

It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.

Note: Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

The title of the legislation and year are to be italicised.

Include the jurisdiction of the legislation in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation.

If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.

If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Legal material

Legal cases

Paraphrasing in-text

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Note: Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.

If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Audiovisual media

Audio podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research shows that . . . (Nilsson, 2016).

Nilsson (2016) comments that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Bone marrow stem cells are "the only stem cell either adult IPS, or ES, where you can take a single cell and do a transplant and functionally reconstitute that tissue" (Nilsson, 2016, 13:31).

Reference list

Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.

Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Audio podcast].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Nilsson, S. (Interviewee). (2016, September 19). New technique in stem cell harvesting [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from https://www.podomatic.com

Audiovisual media

Video podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops. . .and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.

Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

Audiovisual media

Streaming video from a library database

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

Include the database name in the author position.

Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].

Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Audiovisual media

YouTube video

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

. . . anatomical structures are highly detailed and annotated (Primal Pictures, 2014).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Renowned for accuracy, Primal's hugely detailed anatomy models are built from real scanned data" (Primal Pictures, 2014, 00:27).

Reference list

Include either the author/company/organisation name in the author position.

Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].

Provide the exact URL in the retrieval statement.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs

Webpages

Webpage

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

Organisational values are defined by . . . (Early Childhood Australia, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is NOT a PDF document.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a webpage include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

Do NOT italicise the title of the page or section, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Webpages

Webpage document

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

Preventative measures are determined by . . . (World Health Organization, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.

If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"Re-using syringes to access multi-dose medication vials/containers that are used for multiple patients can also lead to the spread of viruses, bacteria and other pathogens" (World Health Organization, 2016, p. 16).

Reference list

If citing information taken directly from a webpage document include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

Do NOT italicise the title of the webpage document, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

World Health Organization. (2015). WHO guideline on the use of safety-engineered syringes for intramuscular, intradermal and subcutaneous injections in health-care settings. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/250144/1/9789241549820-eng.pdf

Images

General rules for images

APA includes the following within the definition of images and figures:

General rules

Note: The caption information varies slightly from usual APA referencing style.

Images

Book / Journal article

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Figure layout

A figure from a book/journal article will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Sample image

Figure 1. Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c, d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions. Reprinted from “Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy,” by E. Fernandez-Lizarbe, A. Montero, A. Polo, R. Hernanz, R. Moris, S. Formenti, and A. Ramos, 2013, Clinical and Translational Oncology, 15, p. 453.

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Fernandez-Lizarbe, E., Montero, A., Polo, A., Hernanz, R., Moris, R., Formenti, S., & Ramos, A. (2013). Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clinical and Translational Oncology, 15, 450-459. doi:10.1007/s12094-012-0950-8

Images

Webpage

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

The diagram shows . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016, Figure 2).

Figure layout

A figure from a webpage will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

anatomical illustration showing thyroid and parathroid glands

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Reprinted from Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version, by National Cancer Institute, 2016, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Acknowledgement for the use of the image in this guide: For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights.

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

National Cancer Institute. (2016). Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Copyright information for the Anatomy of the Thyroid image

For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights

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Images

Library database

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (Ross, 2017).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (Ross, 2017).

The diagram shows . . . (Ross, 2017, Figure 3).

Figure layout

A figure from a library database will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Sample image

Figure 3. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. Reprinted from Imaging Reference Center, by J. S. Ross, 2017, Retrieved from https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Ross, J. S. (2017). Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. [Database image]. Retrieved from https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com

Images

Creative commons

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

The diagram shows . . . (West, 2012, Figure 4).

Figure layout

A figure from a creative commons source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

MRI

Figure 4. MRI. Reprinted from Flickr, by L. West, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Reference list

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

West, L. (2012). MRI. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Copyright information for the MRI image

"MRI" Opens in new window by Liz West Opens in new window can be reused under the CC BY 2.0 license. Opens in new window

Images

Course materials (Canvas)

Figures and tables taken from a Learning Management System (LMS) are to be treated as a personal communication - they need to be cited in-text only, NOT in the reference list.

In-text citation

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

1. within the written body of your paper, and

2. below the figure.

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication took place.

Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 5 . . . (J. Smith, personal communication, August 9, 2017).

J. Smith's (personal communication, August 9, 2017) diagram on atlantoaxial subluxation illustrates . . .

The data in Table 5 shows . . .(J. Smith, personal communication, August 9, 2017).

Figure layout

A figure from an LMS source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

Note: Use the title supplied with the image, if one has not been provided then a descriptive caption needs to be included.

Sample image

Figure 5. Title. Reprinted from course XXXXX1234, by lecturer's name, 2017, Retrieved from https://rmit.instructure.com/

Reference list

As the figure is taken from an unrecoverable source, it’s treated as a personal communication and therefore does NOT appear in the reference list.

Other sources

Conference proceedings

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets.

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs (up to five authors).

It is suggested that . . . (Katashev, Romberg, Danielsson, & Saraste, 2015).

For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (only if there are three or more authors).

Katashev et al. (2015) state that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the conference proceedings.

"For the data acquisition, patients were asked to perform 3 deep breath cycles with hands placed on the back of their heads" (Katashev et al., 2015, pp. 63-64).

Reference list

For proceedings sourced from a print book or e-book, use the same format for a book or book chapter e.g. author(s), year of publication, title of conference paper, editor(s), title of book in italics, page number(s), place of publication, publisher and DOI.

If the proceedings were taken from an online source such as a library database, use the same format as a book and, after the title, include where the paper was presented and the retrieval statement e.g. . . . Paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Medical Imaging, Los Angeles, CA. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxxx

Katashev, A., Romberg, K., Danielsson, A., & Saraste, H. (2015). Application of 3D scanner for estimation of chest movement in scoliotic patients. In H. Mindedal & M. Persson (Eds.). 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16 NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences. (pp. 63-66). Gothenburg, Sweden: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-12967-9

Other sources

Thesis, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The characteristics of insulin deficiency are . . . (Wang, 2015).

Wang (2015) argues that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the thesis.

"Both ectopic lipids and ER stress have been suggested to be responsible for the inhibition of insulin signalling" (Wang, 2015, p. 129).

Reference list

For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work in brackets and also include a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in brackets, and a retrieval statement that includes the name of the database and the accession or order number in brackets.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

Other sources

Standards

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Needle tip evaluation methods are determined by . . . (Standards Australia, 2014).

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the Standard.

"Sterile acupuncture needles for single use shall be sterilized through a validated sterilization process in order to ensure that the products are sterile" (Standards Australia, 2014, p. 9).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

Standards Australia. (2014). Sterile acupuncture needles for single use (AS ISO 17218:2014). Retrieved from https://www.saiglobal.com

Other sources

Blog post

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Workplace stress is increasing . . . (Bratianu, 2015).

Bratianu (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Budgetary constraints may require nurses to do their work with inadequate resources, while an increased emphasis on billing and adherence to regulations can also create stress" (Bratianu, 2015, para. 5).

Reference list

Provide the exact date in brackets, and do NOT italicise the title of the blog post.

Include the form type in square brackets after the title e.g. [Blog post], and provide the exact URL.

Bratianu, P. (2015, June 10). Why workplace stress impacts nurses [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://www.ausmed.com/articles/stress-in-nursing/

Other sources

PowerPoint slides, published

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing a PowerPoint presentation that has been published and sourced online (e.g. SlideShare) then it must be cited both in-text, and in the reference list.

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Chiropractic improves . . . (Haavik, 2014).

Haavik (2014) states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the slide number(s) from the slide.

Use s. to denote slide number. If there is no assigned slide number then count the number of slides from the beginning.

"Spinal function impacts integration of sensory information" (Haavik, 2014, s. 85).

Haavik (2014) notes that "spinal function impacts integration of sensory information" (s. 85).

Reference list

The reference list citation should include: the author(s) name, year of publication, title of the slide presentation in italics, a description of the form type inside square brackets e.g. [PowerPoint slides], and a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Haavik, H. (2014). How to confidently communicate the science of chiropractic [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/heidihaavik/how-to-confidently-communicate-the-science-of-chiropractic

Other sources

Course materials

Referencing of course materials follows the same rules of personal communication, and is only cited in-text.

Examples of course materials are:

All materials accessed via the RMIT Learning Management System are only recoverable by RMIT academic staff as well as the students enrolled in the course, and as such should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

Lecture notes

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing Lecture notes, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, include the author/lecturer first name initial(s) followed by their family name, and a precise date of when the communication/lecture took place.

The lecture on Maslow's hierachy showed . . . (M. Lee, personal communication, 17 May, 2017).

M. Lee's (personal communication, 17 May, 2017) lecture outlined the differences between . . .

PowerPoint slides from lectures

Paraphrasing in-text

If referencing PowerPoint slides used in lectures or in-class presentations, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, be sure to include the author/lecturer first name initial(s), and their family name, as well as a precise date of when the PowerPoint presentation was delivered.

The topic of postural assessment [PowerPoint slides] was examined and found that . . . (B. Draper, personal communication, 26 April, 2017).

B. Draper's (personal communication, 26 April, 2017) slide presentation covered . . .

Practical / Laboratory manual

Paraphrasing in-text

If citing practical or laboratory manuals, then it is treated as a personal communication and should only be cited in-text, NOT in the reference list.

When citing in-text, be sure to include the author/lecturer first name initial(s), and their family name, as well as a precise date of when the manual was accessed or referred to.

The process of transferring plasmids into bacteria was explained in the ONPS1052 Gene Technologies 1 - Practical class 2017 manual (A. Mouradov, personal communication, 4 April, 2017).

A. Mouradov (personal communication, 4 April, 2017) explains the process of plasmid transferral in the 2017 prac manual for ONPS1052.

Images

APA includes the following within the definition of images and figures:

General rules

If referencing figures from course materials taken from the Learning Management System, it is necessary to treat them as a personal communication. Because these figures are only discoverable to staff and students, they are only referenced as an in-text citation, and do NOT appear in the reference list.

For more information and examples on how to cite images taken from course materials please see the Images > Course materials section.

Other sources

Report, government or corporate

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/government department name and year of publication in brackets.

Public hospital expenditure increased dramatically . . . (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016).

Direct quote in-text

Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.

If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"For private hospitals, the recurrent expenditure data provided for 2014–15 are considered comparable with the data provided for 2010–11 to 2013–14" (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2016, p. 47).

Reference list

Include the author(s) if stated; otherwise add the company, organisation or government department, followed by the year of publication in brackets.

As the document is a report, the title is italicised and, if there is a report number, place it in brackets immediately after the title. If the report has been sourced online make sure to include the retrieval statement.

Only identify the publisher as part of the retrieval statement if the publisher has NOT been identified as the author e.g. . . . Retrieved from Australian Institute of Sport website: http://www.xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2016). Hospital resources 2014–15: Australian hospital statistics (Health services series No. 71, Cat. No. HSE 176). Retrieved from http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=60129556122

Referencing for students: AGLC3 style

Using AGLC3

Introduction to the AGLC3 referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Additional resources

Download the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) 3rd ed, 2010 Opens in new window

See also the Victoria University Library Legal Research Methods guide Opens in new window

Using AGLC3

General principles

The AGLC3 style consists of:

In-text example

Recent developments in Australian law following the decision of the High Court in IceTV Pty Ltd v Network Nine Australia Pty Ltd illustrate a fundamental shift in the approach of courts regarding the importance and form of authorship.1

Footnote example

1 IceTV Pty Ltd v Nine Network Australia Pty Ltd [2009] HCA 14.

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference within a footnote directs the reader to a particular place in the cited work:

See section 3.1.4 of the AGLC3 Opens in new window for a full list of abbreviations used in pinpoint references for legislative materials.

Repeat citations

When a source is cited more than once in a paper the full bibliographic details should only be provided in the first instance.

Ibid

Use 'Ibid' in a footnote where the immediately preceding footnote refers to the same work. The exception to this rule is if a footnote lists more than one source (in this case use 'above n').

If a footnote refers to the same work and to the same pinpoint reference, simply use 'Ibid'. The pinpoint reference does not need to be repeated in this case.

If a footnote refers to the same work but to a different pinpoint reference, use 'Ibid' followed by the pinpoint reference.

Above n

Use ‘above n’ to refer to a source that has been cited in a previous footnote other than the immediately preceding one.

However, use ‘above n’ to refer to an immediately preceding footnote, if that footnote lists more than one source.

Using AGLC3

General rules for the bibliography

If a bibliography is required list all works referred to both in footnotes and in the body of your assignment, as well as all works consulted in writing your assignment.

The bibliography is divided into sections as outlined in AGLC 1.16:

A Articles/Books/Reports

B Cases

C Legislation

D Treaties

E Other

Note: Organise items alphabetically under each heading.

Note that details provided in the bibliography are almost identical to details provided in the footnotes, with the following exceptions:

Using AGLC3

Example of a bibliography

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A Articles/Books

Bodkin, Colin, Patent Law in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2nd ed, 2014)

Meagher, Dan, ‘Digital Sampling/Remix Culture Forum’ (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307

B Cases

Roadshow Films Pty Limited v iiNet Limited [2012] HCA 16; (2012) 248 CLR 42

Walton v Gardiner (1993) 112 ALR 289

C Legislation

Copyright Act 1968 (Cth)

Wrongs Act 1958 (Vic)

D Other

Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>>

Using AGLC3

How-to videos

Refer to Swinburne University video clips:

Case law

Reported decision

Case name Year Volume Report series Starting page

Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd

(2012)

286

ALR

466

Footnote examples

Type Footnote example

Individual party names

1 Smith v Smith [1948] 2 ALR 475.

Company party names

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466.

The Crown as the first party

1 R v Milat (2005) 157 A Crim R 565.

The Crown as respondent

1 Smith v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 325.

Bibliography examples

Type Bibliography example

Individual party names

Smith v Smith [1948] 2 ALR 475

Company party names

Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466

The Crown as the first party

R v Milat (2005) 157 A Crim R 565

The Crown as respondent

Smith v The Queen [2010] NSWCCA 325

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision:

Example of a pinpoint reference to a page

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466, 3.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

1 Village Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd (2012) 286 ALR 466, 488 [95].

Law report abbreviations

Case law

Unreported decision

Case name [Year] Court Judgement no. Full date

Rowland v Alfred Health

[2014]

FCA

2

(15 January 2014)

Footnote examples

Type Footnote example

Individual party names

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012).

Company party names

1 Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33 (3 February 2015).

The Crown as the first party

1 R v Coulter [2014] VSC 42 (27 February 2014).

The Crown as respondent

1 Picone v The Queen [2015] VSCA 5 (5 February 2015).

Bibliography examples

Type Bibliography example

Individual party names

Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012)

Company party names

Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33 (3 February 2015)

The Crown as the first party

R v Coulter [2014] VSC 42 (27 February 2014)

The Crown as respondent

Picone v The Queen [2015] VSCA 5 (5 February 2015)

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision:

Example of a pinpoint reference to a page

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012) 22.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

1 Stanford v Stanford [2012] HCA 52 (15 November 2012) [12].

Law report abbreviations

Referencing case law: ‘in text’ and pinpoint references

In text references

In text reference example

“Recent developments in Australian law following the decision of the High Court in IceTV Pty Ltd v Network Nine Australia Pty Ltd (IceTV)1 illustrate a fundamental shift in the approach of courts regarding the importance and form of authorship.”

Pinpoint references

A pinpoint reference is a reference to a specific page, paragraph or other section of a decision

Example of pinpoint reference to a page

Universal Music Australia Pty Ltd and Others v Sharman License Holdings Ltd and Others (2005) 220 ALR 1, 3.

Example of a pinpoint reference to a paragraph

Roadshow Films Pty Ltd v iiNet Ltd, (2012) 286 ALR 466, 488 [95]

Legislation

Statute or regulation (Act of Parliament)

Title Year Jurisdiction Pinpoint

Copyright Act

1968

(Cth)

s 1

Footnote example

1 Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic).

Bibliography example

Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic)

Pinpoint references

Pinpoint example

Climate Change Act 2010 (Vic) pt 3 div 2 s 16

Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

Books and e-books

Single author

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Title Publication details Pinpoint

Mathew Rimmer,

Intellectual Property and Bio­technology: Bio­logical Inventions

(Edward Elgar, 2008)

120-123

Footnote example

1 Mathew Rimmer, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008).

Pinpoint example

1 Mathew Rimmer, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008) 120-123.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Rimmer, Mathew, Intellectual Property and Biotechnology: Biological Inventions (Edward Elgar, 2008)

Other examples

Use of edition number

Colin Bodkin, Patent Law in Australia (Thomson Reuters, 2nd ed, 2014)

Corporate author

Australian Law Reform Commission, Family Violence: a Legal Response: Summary Report (Australian Law Reform Commission, 2010)

Books and e-books

Multiple authors or edited work

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Title Publication details

Geoffrey A. Manne and Joshua D Wright,

Competition Policy and Patent Law under Un­certainty Regulating Innovation

(Cambridge University Press, 2011)

Footnote examples

Edited book

1 Belinda Bennett (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008).

Book with three authors

1 Damien J Cremean, Michael H Whitten and Michael F. Sharkey, Brooking on building contracts: the law and practice relating to building and engineering agreements (LexisNexis Butterworths, 5th ed, 2014).

Book with four or more authors

1 Patrick Thomas George et al, Social Media and the Law (LexisNexis Butterworths, 2010).

Pinpoint example

1 Belinda Bennett (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008) 21.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Bennett, Belinda (ed), Globalization and Health (Springer, 2008)

Books and e-books

Chapter in an edited book

These rules apply when referencing both printed books and e-books.

Author Chapter title in Author Title Details

William Gough,

'Securities over Debts'

in Gregory Burton (ed),

Directions in Finance Law

(Butterworths, 1990)

Footnote example

1 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990).

Pinpoint example

1 William Gough, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990) 223.

Bibliography example

When the citation appears in a bibliography, list the family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by family name.

Gough, William, 'Securities over Debts' in Gregory Burton (ed), Directions in Finance Law (Butterworths, 1990)

Books

Encyclopaedia

Publisher Title Date Title no. and name Chapter no. and name Paragraph

LexisNexis,

Halsbury's Laws of Australia

(at 1 June 2011)

90 Constitutional Law,

'6 Limitations on Legislative Powers'

[90-2226]

Footnote example

1 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 1 June 2011) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers' [90-2226].

Bibliography example

LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (at 1 June 2011) 90 Constitutional Law, '6 Limitations on Legislative Powers'

A note on citing e-books

A note on citing e-books

Articles

Journal article with single author

Author Title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Page

Dan Meagher,

'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture Forum'

(2012)

17 (2)

Deakin Law Review

307

Footnote example

1 Dan Meagher, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review, 307.

Pinpoint example

1 Dan Meagher, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307, 22.

Bibliography example

Meagher, Dan, 'Digital Sampling/Remix Culture' (2012) 17(2) Deakin Law Review 307

Articles

Journal article with multiple authors

Two authors Title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Page

Samantha Joseph and Erin Mackay,

'Moral Rights and Indigenous Communities'

2006

3

Art and Law,

6

Two or three authors

Footnote example

1 Benjamin Hayward, John Morss and Oscar Roos, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review, 81.

Pinpoint example

1 Benjamin Hayward, John Morss and Oscar Roos, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review 81, 83.

Bibliography example

Hayward, Benjamin, Morss, John and Roos, Oscar, 'Beyond the Separation of Powers: Judicial Review and the Regulatory Proscription of Terrorist Organisations' (2010) 35 (1) University of Western Australia Law Review 81

Three or more authors

Footnote example

1 Gary Edmond et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice, 337.

Pinpoint example

1 Gary Edmond et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice, 337, 338.

Bibliography example

Edmond, Gary et al, 'Law’s Looking Glass: Expert Identification Evidence Derived from Photographic and Video Images' (2009) 20 Current issues in Criminal Justice 337

Articles

Newspaper article

Author Title Newspaper (Place) Date Pinpoint

Laura Tingle

'Norway fund ponders dumping coal',

The Australian Financial Review,

(Sydney)

24 February 2015,

8

Footnote example

1 Laura Tingle, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015.

Pinpoint example

1 Laura Tingle, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015, 8.

Bibliography example

Tingle, Laura, 'Norway fund ponders dumping coal', The Australian Financial Review, (Sydney), 24 February 2015

Online sources

Internet source

Author Document title Full date Website name URL

Board of Examiners,

Admission Requirements

(18 February 2010)

Council of Legal Information

<http://lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Footnote example

1 Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Bibliography example

Board of Examiners, Admission Requirements (18 February 2010) Council of Legal Information <http://www.lawadmissions.vic.gov.au>

Audiovisual material

Film and audiovisual material

Title (Directed by Name, Production Company, Year) Pinpoint

A Few Good Men

(Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992)

1:15:25

Footnote example

1 A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992).

Pinpoint example

1 A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992) 1:15:25.

Bibliography example

A Few Good Men (Directed by Rob Reiner, Castle Rock Entertainment, 1992)

Audiovisual material

Television or radio transcript

Broadcaster Title of segment Name of program Full date Name of speaker

ABC Radio National,

'Using evidence obtained in search warrants',

The Law Report,

3 February 2015

(Damian Carrick)

Footnote example

1 ABC Radio National, 'Using evidence obtained in search warrants', The Law Report, 3 February 2015, (Damian Carrick) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/surfers-paradise/6028122#transcript>

Bibliography example

ABC Radio National, 'Using evidence obtained in search warrants', The Law Report, 3 February 2015, (Damian Carrick) <http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/lawreport/surfers-paradise/6028122#transcript>

Using Vancouver

Introduction to the Vancouver referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

The Vancouver referencing style is a numbered system, predominantly used in the medical field. Authorship is acknowledged using a number to represent a reference. From the in-text reference number, the reader may consult the reference list for full publication details.

Additional resources

Download the RMIT Vancouver referencing guide (DOCX, 130 KB, 10 pages) Opens in new window - MS Word document for downloading or printing

Victoria University Library Referencing Guides for printing Opens in new window - a full list of style guides used at RMIT

Using Vancouver

General rules for in-text citations

The theory was first put forward in 1987. (1)

The theory was first put forward in 1987. [1]

The theory was first put forward in 1987.1

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you use someone else's ideas or research and express them in your own words. The way you cite the information depends on the emphasis you wish to apply.

Information-prominent citations emphasise the information you have paraphrased or quoted from an author:

. . . as evidenced from a recent Australian study. (1)

Author-prominent citations emphasise the author. Note: When citing a reference with multiple authors, list the first author, and then abbreviate subsequent authors using et al.

In his research, Jones (2) asserts that . . .

Morton et al. (2) suggest that the use of binomial control charts . . .

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are rarely used in the Vancouver style. However, if you use the exact wording of a source:

Note: Within the parentheses, the in-text number is followed by a space, then the lower case letter 'p' with no space and the page number.

"The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as ‘big data’, provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care". (1 p433)

Quotes longer than four lines should be indented in a block, in reduced type and without quotation marks:

With the increased need to store data and information generated by big projects, computational solutions, such as cloud-based computing, have emerged. Cloud computing is the only storage model that can provide the elastic scale needed for DNA sequencing, whose rate of technology advancement could now exceed Moore's Law. Moore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits and the speed of computers double approximately every 2 years. (1 p433)

Using Vancouver

Citing multiple references at the same point in-text

When citing more than one reference at the same point in your text, give the relevant numbers, separated by commas. Include one space between the comma and the next number:

A number of researchers (4, 5) discovered that . . .

A number of researchers (3, 6, 10) discovered that . . .

If the references have consecutive numbers, then use a hyphen. There should be no spaces between numbers and hyphens:

A number of researchers (4-7) discovered that . . .

Using Vancouver

General rules for the reference list

Titles

Authors

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then qualify it – see below – by the state code or country name.

Pagination

For books in the Reference List, pagination (i.e. total number of pages) is optional. Note: The examples in this guide do not include pagination for books.

Punctuation for references ending with a URL

End citations with a full stop unless the citation ends with a URL or other electronic address.

Check:

Using Vancouver

Example of a reference list

Reference List

  1. Sullivan EJ. Becoming influential: a guide for nurses. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Pearson; 2013.
  2. Morton A, Mengersen KL, Playford G, Whitby M. Statistical methods for hospital monitoring with R. Chichester (England): John Wiley & Sons; 2013.
  3. Goering RV, Dockrell HM, Wakelin D, Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt IM, et al. Mims' medical microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby Elsevier; 2008.
  4. Colbert BJ, Ankney J, Lee KT. Anatomy, physiology & disease: an interactive journey for health professionals. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Education; 2013.
  5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne, (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.
  6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne, (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.
  7. Wagner, HN. Brain imaging: the chemistry of mental activity [Internet]. London (England): Springer London; 2009 [cited 2012 Aug 24]. Available from: SpringerLink eBooks.
  8. Musiek ES. Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: a critical appraisal. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2017 Jun;3(2):85-92.
  9. Marinovich ML, Houssami N, Macaskill P, Sardanelli F, Irwig L, Mamounas EP, et al. Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Mar 6;105(5):321-33.
  10. Ogilvy J. Human enhancement and the computational metaphor. J Evol Technol. [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2018 Mar 9];22(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: https://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm
  11. Fernandez-Lizarbe E, Montero A, Polo A, Hernanz R, Moris R, Formenti S, Ramos A. Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clin Transl Oncol 2013; 15:450-9. Figure 2, Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c,d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions; p. 453.
  12. National Cancer Institute. Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute; [Figure 1], Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands; [updated 2016 May 27; cited 2016 Aug 11]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq
  13. CSIRO [Internet]. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; c2015-2017. Wheat a kick in the guts for fighting diseases; 2017 Dec 14 [cited 2018 Jan 15]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2017/Wheat-a-kick-in-the-guts-for-fighting-diseases?featured=F29EDEB1728C4A92B579C7A5DC28BAD5
  14. Institute of Biomedical Science. Guidance on quality management in laboratories [Internet]: Institute of Biomedical Science; 2015 [updated 2015 Jun; cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: https://www.ibms.org/resources/documents/quality-management-in-laboratories/guidance-on-quality-management-in-laboratories.pdf

Book

Book with single author

In-text paraphrasing

Using a case study, Sullivan (1) demonstrates the relationship between goal setting and career advancement.

Effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills are essential for nurses. (1)

In-text direct quote

According to Sullivan (1), nurses "get fulfillment from caring for others". (p29)

While the public may value nurses highly, "nursing ranks low in career desirability". (1 p47)

Reference list

1. Sullivan EJ. Becoming influential: a guide for nurses. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Pearson; 2013.

Books

Book with multiple authors

In-text citations

For an in-text citation that has multiple authors, list the first author, and then abbreviate subsequent authors using et al.

Researchers are advised that "the possibility of bias should be kept in mind". (2 p132)

Morton et al. (2) suggest that the use of binomial control charts ...

Reference list

In the reference list:

2. Morton A, Mengersen KL, Playford G, Whitby M. Statistical methods for hospital monitoring with R. Chichester (England): John Wiley & Sons; 2013.

3. Goering RV, Dockrell HM, Wakelin D, Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt IM, et al. Mims' medical microbiology. 4th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Mosby Elsevier; 2008.

Books

Book with an edition number

In-text citations

Whether you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote, in-text citations do not include the edition number of a book.

Colbert et al. (4) highlight the important role that skin plays in protecting the body.

Reference list

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation "ed." after the book title. There is no need to include edition information if a book is a first edition, or if no edition is mentioned.

4. Colbert BJ, Ankney J, Lee KT. Anatomy, physiology & disease: an interactive journey for health professionals. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River (NJ): Pearson Education; 2013.

Books

Edited book

Usually, part of a chapter in an edited book is cited in-text unless you refer to an edited book as a whole. Firstly, here is how an edited book is cited in-text and then in the reference list.

In-text citations

Cite as you would for a book with an author or authors. If the book has multiple editors, list the first editor and then abbreviate subsequent editors using et al.

Changes to the nature of healthcare as they relate to inclusive practice are outlined by Davis et al. (5)

Reference List entry

5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citations

In the example below, Williams wrote a particular chapter in an edited book and some information in it has been paraphrased. The Reference List entry, given the number (6), shows the author's name and chapter title, followed by details of the book in which that chapter is found.

According to Williams (6), National Health Surveys are valuable sources of information on the state of health and well-being of Australians.

Reference List entry

In the Reference List, provide:

6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.

Books

e-Book

In-text citations

The information provided here is for an e-book from a library database. The rules for citing an e-book in-text are the same as for a physical (i.e. print) book.

According to Wagner (6), the cortical brain blood flow in imprisoned violent lawbreakers is lower than that of the general population.

Reference list

Include the same information as you would for a print book as well as the following additions:

6. Wagner HN. Brain imaging: the chemistry of mental activity [Internet]. London (England): Springer London; 2009 [cited 2012 Aug 24]. Available from: SpringerLink eBooks.

Journal

Single author

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

In his research, Musiek (8) found that sleep and the circadian system ...

Reference list

Include the following, noting the use of punctuation and spaces.

8. Musiek ES. Circadian rhythms in AD pathogenesis: a critical appraisal. Curr Sleep Med Rep. 2017 Jun;3(2):85-92.

Journal

Multiple author

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

Marinovich et al. (9) conducted a systematic review on the accuracy of breast magnetic resonance imaging.

Reference list

Include the following, noting the use of punctuation and spaces.

In the example below, the article was written by nine authors. Note that only the first six authors are listed, followed by a comma then et al.

9. Marinovich ML, Houssami N, Macaskill P, Sardanelli F, Irwig L, Mamounas EP, et al. Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013 Mar 6;105(5):321-33.

Journal

Article on the Internet

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

Ogilvy explores the excessive preoccupation with enhancing human life: extending life to promote its longevity, and increasing human intelligence. (10)

Reference list

In the Reference List, include the same information as you would for a print journal. Note the punctuation used and where spaces are used or not used. In addition, note the following:

10. Ogilvy J. Human enhancement and the computational metaphor. J Evol Technol. [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2018 Mar 9];22(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: https://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm

Images

General rules

General rules

In the Vancouver style, the term “illustration” applies to anything that is not written. For example:

The following are general rules for citing illustrations – whatever the type - using the Vancouver referencing style. However, the specific examples provided in this Vancouver guide are for citing images.

Using numbers

The Vancouver referencing style uses Arabic numerals, e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc., whenever a number is required. Do not use:

In-text citations

Below the illustration you have inserted in your text, add a caption that includes:

The reference list

In the reference list, include the sources of all the illustrations that you have used from another source and inserted in your text.

In general, this is the order that the references in your list will include:

Images not numbered in the original source, e.g. image on a webpage or in a database

Images

Image from a book

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 1. (15)

Figure 1 (15) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 1. Glenohumeral joint. (15)

Reference list

In your reference list, the entry for a book will include:

15. Gustowski S, Budner-Gentry M, Seals, R. Osteopathic techniques: the learner's guide. New York (NY):Thieme; 2017. Figure 4.25, Glenohumeral joint; p. 72.

Images

Image from a journal article

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 1. (11)

Figure 1 (11) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 1. Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c, d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions. (11)

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

11. Fernandez-Lizarbe E, Montero A, Polo A, Hernanz R, Moris R, Formenti S, Ramos A. Pilot study of feasibility and dosimetric comparison of prone versus supine breast radiotherapy. Clin Transl Oncol. 2013; 15:450-9. Figure 2, Dose distributions for a left-breast tumor (a, b) at the level of surgical bed defined by titanium clips (arrows) and the corresponding DVH (c,d) for supine (left) and prone (right) positions; p. 453.

Images

Image from a webpage

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 2. (12)

Figure 2 (12) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

anatomical illustration showing thyroid and parathroid glands

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. (12)

Images not given a title in the original source

If an image has not been given a title or a description, e.g. a photograph, create an appropriate title and enter it in square brackets. For example, [Scar tissue on knee].

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

Images not numbered in the original source

If the illustration is not numbered, give it a number according to its placement on the webpage and enclose it in square brackets. For example, if it is the first illustration in the original source, give it the number 1, e.g. [Figure 1].

If it is the only illustration given in the original source, just use [Figure].

12. National Cancer Institute. Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute; [Figure 1], Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands; [updated 2017 Aug 18; cited 2017 Oct 11]; [about 1 screen]. Available from: http://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Copyright information for the Anatomy of the Thyroid image

For the National Cancer Institute © 2012 Terese Winslow LLC, U.S. Govt. has certain rights

License Granted: Terese Winslow LLC hereby grants limited, non-exclusive worldwide print and electronic rights only for use in the work specified. Terese Winslow LLC grants such rights “AS IS” without representation or warranty of any kind and shall have no liability in connection with such license.

Restrictions: Reproduction for use in any other work or derivative works is prohibited. Ownership of original artwork, copyright, and all rights not specifically transferred herein remain the exclusive property of Terese Winslow LLC. Additional license(s) are required for ancillary usage(s).

Images

Image from a library database

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 3. (16)

Figure 3 (16) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Sample image

Figure 3. Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. (16)

Reference list

The reference list entry includes the following:

Images not numbered in the original source

If the illustration is not numbered, give it a number according to its placement on the webpage and enclose it in square brackets. For example, if it is the first illustration in the original source, give it the number 1, e.g. [Figure 1].

If it is the only illustration given in the original source, just use [Figure].

16. Ross JS. Lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. [cited 2017 Sep 05]. [Figure], Graphic of large recurrent disc herniation shows displacement of the nuclear material through a large defect in the posterior annular fibers with effacement of the ventral thecal sac and displacement of the intrathecal nerve roots. In: Imaging Reference Centre [Internet]. Amsterdam (The Netherlands): Elsevier. 2017. [about 1 screen]. Available from: https://app.imagingreferencecenter.com/.

Images

Image from Creative Commons

In-text citation

If you refer to the illustration in-text, then cite it as you would any other citation, e.g.:

. . . as shown in Figure 4. (17)

Figure 4 (17) shows that . . .

Figure layout

The caption beneath the image should include:

Images not given a title in the original source

If an image has not been given a title or a description, e.g. a photograph, create an appropriate title and enter it in square brackets. For example, [Scar tissue on knee].

MRI

Figure 4. MRI. (17)

Reference list

The citation in the reference list will include the reference number you assigned the illustration in your text and:

17. West L. MRI [Internet]. Mountain View (CA): Flickr.com; 2012 Aug 1 [cited 2017 Oct 1]. [Figure]. Available from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/7694882446 CC BY 2.0

Copyright information for the MRI image

"MRI" Opens in new window by Liz West Opens in new window can be reused under the CC BY 2.0 license. Opens in new window

Other sources

Conference paper - Book

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for other references:

In order to improve patient safety, Benham et al. (18) created a Web-based application for use in hospitals.

Reference List

A conference paper in the proceedings of a book is referenced in the same way as a contribution to a book. It begins with the author(s) and title of the paper, followed by a connecting phrase beginning with "In:", the book's editor(s), book title, and conference information. It ends with the publication details of the book and the relevant pagination.

18. Benham SA, Amyot D, Forster AJ, Peyton L, Shamsaei A. Goal-driven development of a patient surveillance application for improving patient safety. In: Babin G, Kropf P, Weiss M, editors. E-technologies: innovation in an open world. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference, MCETECH; 2009 May 4-6; Ottawa, Canada. Heidelberg (Germany): Springer-Verlag; 2009. p. 65-76.

Other sources

Webpage

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. For example:

A new wheat type has been developed which provides for greater fibre than current types. (13)

Reference List

Include in the reference list:

13. CSIRO [Internet]. Canberra (Australia): Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation; c2015-2017. Wheat a kick in the guts for fighting diseases; 2017 Dec 14 [cited 2018 Jan 15]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: https://www.csiro.au/en/News/News-releases/2017/Wheat-a-kick-in-the-guts-for-fighting-diseases?featured=F29EDEB1728C4A92B579C7A5DC28BAD5

Other sources

Webpage document

In-text citations

For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. For example:

Quality management relies on good communication, which is described as “the key to quality”. (14 p5)

Reference List

Include in the reference list:

14. Institute of Biomedical Science. Guidance on quality management in laboratories [Internet]. London (England): Institute of Biomedical Science; 2015 [updated 2015 Jun; cited 2016 Sep 1]; [8 p.]. Available from: https://www.ibms.org/resources/documents/quality-management-in-laboratories/guidance-on-quality-management-in-laboratories.pdf

Referencing for students: IEEE style

Using IEEE

Introduction to the IEEE referencing style

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is a numbered style where references are numbered [1], [2], [3] in-text and so on in the order of appearance in the body of the document. A Reference List at the end of the work provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order). You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

Additional resources

Victoria University IEEE Referencing Style Guide Opens in new window - a full list of reference formats & examples used at VU

VU IEEE referencing - all format examples (PDF document, 10 pages) Opens in new window - link to PDF document for downloading or printing

IEEE Computer Society Style Guide Opens in new window - link to PDF document for downloading or printing

Using IEEE

General rules for in-text citations

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, it’s acceptable to include only the citation as a number in square brackets, or as a number along with the author’s family name as part of your sentence.

Note: When paraphrasing, the citation details can be placed at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Wilde et al. [1] suggest that energy storage is achieved . . .

Citation in the middle

This technology is based on a compressed gas hydraulic accumulator [1], and provides an almost perfect isothermal behaviour due to the low speed of the compressions/expansion process.

Citation at the end

. . . and determines its charge storage capacity with respect to a vacum [1].

Note: Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research on transducers, Jones [1] proposed a new approach for sensor and actuator selection.

Information-prominent citations

. . . and hence linked to an enormous heat exchange surface [1].

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers are not usually used as part of the citation, unless it intends to help the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

Note: Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the IEEE referencing style.

Direct quotes

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add both the citation number followed by a comma, and the page number(s), preceded by p. or pp. Do not overuse direct quotes.

Baez et al. have noted that "full 3D stacking can potentially offer additional advantages for memory and processor applications" [1, p. 14].

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

“A flywheel is a mass rotating about an axis, which can store energy mechanically in the form of kinetic energy” [1, Ch. 3, para. 1].

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

As seen in [5, p. 14], “the proposed circuit has improved signal attenuation ... ,and has been experiencing less performance degradation due to resistor variation”.

Note: Quotes longer than three lines are strongly discouraged, and should be avoided.

Using IEEE

Citing the same source multiple times

If citing the same reference within the body of the text, then use the same citation number throughout the text. IEEE does NOT allow for the use of terms such as “ibid.” or “op. cit.” when citing the same reference multiple times. Instead, if the same source is cited multiple times, then it is preferable to distinguish between these with reference to the appropriate section, for example:

Using IEEE

Single in-text citations

Each in-text citation number should be enclosed by square brackets and appear on the text line, inside sentence punctuation, with a space before the bracket, e.g.

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems are widely used for circuit analysis simplification [1].

According to [2], there is little evidence that . . .

In contrast to [3, p. 7], it is evident that . . .

In [4], the resulting composite video signal was presented . . .

As shown by Jones [5] . . .

. . . as previously shown [6].

The in-text citations numbers start at [1], and continue in the ascending order throughout the paper – unless you are referring to a source you have already cited in your text, in which case you can use the previously assigned number.

There is little variation in the formatting of in-text citations whether you are citing a book, a journal article, a web page, or another source.

At the end of the paper provide full details of all references cited in-text taking into consideration the type of source used. The reference list should be arranged in the order of in-text citations, not in an alphabetical order.

Any edits to the in-text citation numbers may mean renumbering the reference list.

Using IEEE

Multiple in-text citations

If listing multiple citations within a sentence of text, then the preferred method is to list each citation number separately, or by inserting a comma or en dash between each number.

In [1], [3], [7] it was noted that . . .

It is suggested by [6]–[8] that . . .

It is also acceptable for multiple citations to be listed the following way in-text:

Recent studies [1, 3, 7] have shown that . . .

Specific objectives [6–8] indicate that . . .

Using IEEE

Secondary source citation

A secondary citation is used when you acknowledge the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work.

The IEEE referencing style does NOT allow for the use of secondary citations.

If a secondary citation has to be used, then the original source MUST be located and cited.

If the original source cannot be located, then do NOT cite it.

Using IEEE

Abbreviations

Month abbreviations

When citing journals, patents and websites, use the following abbreviations for months:

Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. (note that some months appear in full and DO NOT require a full stop).

Use a forward slash for bimonthly issues e.g. Apr./May 2016 and a en dash for a quarterly issue e.g. June–Aug. 2015.

Word abbreviations

Standard IEEE words when used in a reference should be abbreviated. See the ‘Common Abbreviations of Words in References’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 40–42.

Journal title abbreviations

If referencing any IEEE journals or magazine titles, then refer to the ‘IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 43–48.

Conference proceeding abbreviations

When citing conference proceedings, the common rule is to list the author(s), title, name and location (if provided) of the conference and use any standard abbreviations where necessary. For further details, refer to the ‘Published Conference Proceedings’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window p. 36.

Common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms

When using common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms in-text, then refer to the ‘Some Common Acronyms and Abbreviations’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 49–52.

Using IEEE

General rules for the reference list

General rules

Digital object identifier (DOI)

When citing electronic sources such as e-journal articles or e-books, you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated. A DOI is a unique identifier that is assigned to certain electronic sources, and provides a persistent link to online content.

The DOI can be added to the reference list using the following formats:

1. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx

2. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxx

3. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

If no DOI is assigned, include either the journal/database homepage URL if taken from a library database, or the full URL if taken from a source on the open web.

Note: There is no full stop after the DOI/URL, and the hyperlink is removed.

Place of publication

For the place of publication, add the city, and then include the state code (if applicable) and country name, followed by the publisher and year of publication.

Cities in the USA need the state abbreviation and country.

Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, 2017.

Cities in other countries (outside the USA) just need to include the city name and country.

Oxford, United Kingdom: Newnes, 2012.

Using IEEE

Example of a reference list

Note: The Reference List is to be formatted using 1.5 line spacing and single paragraph spacing between each citation.

Reference List

[1]    R. E. Ziemer and W. H. Tranter, Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015.

[2]    J. D. Bellamy et al., Computer Telephony Integration, New York: Wiley, 2010.

[3]    N. B. Vargafik, J. A. Wiebelt, and J. F. Malloy, "Radiative transfer," in Convective Heat. Melbourne: Engineering Education Australia, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 379-398.

[4]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78-99.

[5]    W. M. Rohsenow, "Heat transmission," in Thermal Radiation Properties, vol. 3, M. W. Catton and J. P. Hartnett, Eds. New York: Macmillan, 2012, ch. 9, pp. 37-62.

[6]    H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories, Electrical Engineering. A Pocket Reference. Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ebrary.com

[7]    G. H. Gaynor, "Dealing with the manager leader dichotomy," in Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2, Developing Leader and Managers. IEEE-USA, 2011, pp. 27-28. Accessed on: Jan. 23, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

[8]    M. Cvijetic, "Optical transport system engineering," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, vol. 4, J. G. Proakis, Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, pp. 1840-1849. Accessed on: Feb. 5, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

[9]    T. Kaczorek, “Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits,” Archives of Electrical Engineering., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 191-201, May 2018.

[10]    P. Harsha and M. Dahleh, “Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy,” IEEE Trans. Power Sys., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1164-1181, May 2015.

[11]    A. Vaskuri, H. Baumgartner, P. Kärhä, G. Andor, and E. Ikonen, “Modeling the spectral shape of InGaAIP-based red light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 203103-1-203103-7, Jul. 2015. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2017. [Online]. Available: doi: 10.1063/1.4936322

[12]    C. R. Ozansoy, “Design and implementation of a Universal Communications Processor for substation integration, automation and protection,” Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, 2006. Accessed on: June 22, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/527/

[13]    S. r. Ayubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," in 13th Int. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, Dec. 2014, pp. 675-680.

[14]    M. Frishberg and M. M. Gobble, “Quantum dots: beyond solar cells,” Research Technology Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 7-8, May/Jun. 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 13, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

[15]    Engineers Australia (2015, July 15), Cook Islands Renewable Energy, Engineers Australia, Engineering House, Barton, ACT, Australia. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/news/cook-islands-renewable-energy

[16]    Michael Blackwood Productions (2007). Engineering Transparency - Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering. Accessed on: Feb. 18, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

[17]  Department of Premier and Cabinet, PROV environmental sustainability, Melbourne, Australia: Public Record Office Victoria, 2015. Accessed on: June 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://data.vic.gov.au/data/dataset/prov-environmental-sustainability

[18]  Fixing system for an electrical plate, by Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22). Patent 2016905338. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

[19]  IEEE Standard for Spectrum Sensing Interfaces and Data Structures for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Other Advanced Radio Communication Systems, IEEE Standard 1900.6, 2011.

[20]  Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and Equipment, AS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011.

Books

Single author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The high-capacity coolers have been studied in [2], and it is shown that ...

Anderson [2] states that . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Sustainability conceptually rests on three pillars: economic, social, and environmental continuity" [2, p. 19].

Anderson notes that "Sustainability conceptually rests on three pillars: economic, social, and environmental continuity" [2, p. 19].

Reference list

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    J. R. Anderson, The Ecological Impact of Biofuels, 3rd ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

Books

Book with two or three authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

Exergy and energy have been examined in [2].

Dincer, Midilli, and Kucuk [2] state that exergy and energy . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"An exergy analysis determines the exergy destruction within each component and calculates the system exergy efficiency" [2, p. 9].

Reference list

List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    C. I. Dicner, A. Midilli, and H. Kucuk, Progress in Exergy, Energy, and the Environment. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2014.

Books

Book with four to six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Energy storage is one of the highest technological barriers . . . [2].

Julien et al. [2] discuss the use of energy storage systems.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The subject of energy storage is a major development in high technology, which bears considerable industrial potential" [2, p. 1].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    C. Julien, A. Mauger, A. K. Vijh, and K. Zaghib, Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016.

Books

Book with more than six authors

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Sustainability implies a continuous and a renewable ability to perform something [2].

Mytschell et al. [2] examine the human dimension of sustainable development.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Sustainable development has three components: the social, economic, and environmental" [2, p. 17].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

Author initials. Family name, or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    B. A. Mytschell et al., Engineering Education for Sustainable Development. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

Books

Corporate author

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name/corporate name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family/corporate name.

The area of materials sciences is one of the Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL) primary core technical competencies [2].

The Army Research Laboratory (ARM) [2] consider the area of materials sciences one of the primary core technical competencies.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The 2013 review addressed the areas of biomaterials, energy materials and devices, and photonic materials and devices" [2, p. 23].

Reference list

Place corporate name in the author position.

When citing a book by a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

[2]    Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board, Laboratory Assessments Board, Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences, and National Research Council of the National Academies, 2013-2014 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2015.

Books

Edited, Compiled, or Translated book

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The chemical storage device that captures energy from the sun . . . [2].

Habbara [2] indicated that primary emissions were the major sources of fine Particulate Matter (PM) pollution.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Primary emissions played an important role in causing high PM pollution during wintertime in Lanzhou" [2, p. 285].

Reference list

Add editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s), if any, if listed on title page in addition to author(s). When no author appears on the title page, a work is listed by the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s). The abbreviation Ed. or Eds., comp. or comps., or trans. follows the name, preceded by a comma.

The editor(s) provide technical and scientific expertise in the development of technical books, and assure that the content follows the approved scope of the publication.

[2]    A. W. Alsabti and P. Murdin, Eds., Handbook of Supernovae. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

Include comp. or comps. for manuscripts or other work comprising previously published material that has been compiled.

[3]    G. Young, comp., A Practical Course in Basic Electronics. Werribee, Victoria, Australia: College Publications, 2005.

Include trans. for translated works.

[4]    Y. D. Ephraim, trans., Speech Signal Processing. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

Books

Book chapter (in an edited book)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Heat transfer is essential to nearly every industrial and environmental process [2].

Hottel and Siegel [2] contend that heat transfer . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Heat transfer is a process by which heat flows from hot to cold regions" [2, p. 11].

Reference list

When citing a book chapter make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of the chapter," in Title of the Book, ed. (edition, except the first), vol. (volume, if available). Ed. or Eds. (editor(s) if available). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known': Publisher, Year of Publication, ch. (chapter number), pp. chapter/s or first and last pages of the article.

[2]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78-99.

Books

Electronic book (without DOI)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Power supplies are electronic circuits designed to supply other electronic circuits or applications with electric energy [2].

The national approval signs printed on power transformers are detailed by Schmidt-Walter and Kories [2].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

"Transformers convert the mains voltage to a lower level and realise the electrical isolation between the mains and the low voltage" [2, p. 469].

"Leadership involves reaching beyond the current body of knowledge or accepted facts, processes, and rituals and having the courage to move beyond the status quo" [3, Ch. 5, para. 6].

Reference list

When citing e-books from a database without a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of the E-book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file (database homepage or e-book's URL)

[2]    H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference, Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

[3]    H. H. Gaynor, Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2: Developing Managers and Leaders, IEEE-USA, 2011. Accessed on: Oct. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

Books

Electronic book (with DOI)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The lifecycle cost analysis can be applied when selecting design alternatives [2].

Kelly, Luke, and Wright [2] suggest the lifecycle cost analysis when selecting design alternatives.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"ASCE has advocated for the broad use of lifecycle cost analysis since 1997" [2, p. 71].

Reference list

When citing an electronic book with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of the E-book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

[2]    W. E. Kelly, B. Luke, and R. N. Wright, Engineering for Sustainable Communities: Principles and Practices. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2018. [Online]. doi: 10.1061/9780784414811

Books

E-book from the internet

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Impulse, step and sinusoid signals are used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits [2].

The signals used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits are detailed by Scharf [2].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

"The sinusoid is an idealized signal that models excitations that oscillate with a regular frequency" [2, Ch. 5, para. 5].

Reference list

When citing e-books from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[2]    L. Scharf, A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012. Accessed on: May 20, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.freetechbooks.com/a-first-course-in-electrical-and-computer-engineering-t1038.html

Journal articles

Journal article with single author

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Mathematical fundamentals of the fractional calculus . . .[3].

Kaczorek [3] formulated and solved . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Kaczorek concluded that the “Presented method can be extended to positive discrete-time linear systems and to fractional positive discrete-time linear systems with bounded inputs” [3, p. 1828].

Reference list

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    T. Kaczorek, “Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits,” Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 191-201, 2016.

Journal articles

Journal article with two or three authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

Numerous studies of engineers' information seeking behaviour have found . . .[3].

Fidel and Green [3] contend that accessibility was the factor that influenced most of the engineers' selection of information sources.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Studies have shown repeatedly that engineers rely most heavily on internal sources for information, mainly on interpersonal communication with colleagues" [3, p. 564].

Reference list

List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    M. Fidel and H. M. Green, “Engineers perception of information sources,” Inf. Process. Manage., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 225-256, May 2015.

Journal articles

Journal article with four to six authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

The information seeking begins with uncertainty and anxiety [3].

Chanson et al. [3] formed the hypothesis that information seeking begins with uncertainty and anxiety.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Chanson et al. define uncertainty as “The cognitive state that causes visceral symptoms such as insecurity and anxiety” [3, p. 245].

Reference list

List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    F. Chanson, L. W. Burton, H. Cleveland, G. P. Luth, T. McCarthy, and H. M. Green, “The information-seeking practices of engineers,” J. Doc., vol. 34, no. 43, pp. 120-144, Apr. 2013.

Journal articles

Journal article with more than six authors

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

Software development methodologies are broadly divided into two categories, namely heavyweight and lightweight methodologies [3].

Akbar et al. [3] proposed a new software development life cycle model, the “AZ-Model”.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Akbar et al. proposed the new model broadly divided into three phases, namely “The customer involvement phase, development phase, and releasing phase” [3. p. 4820].

Reference list

If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

Author initials. Family name, "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[3]    M. A. Akbar et al., “Improving the quality of software development process by introducing a new methodology: A-Z model,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 4811-4823, Dec. 2017.

Journal articles

Electronic journal article with a DOI

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The concept of using infrared imaging to assess performance of residential solar systems has a threefold appeal [3].

Carlson et al. [3] describe a remote method for finding non-operational solar thermal collector panels.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Flyby aerial surveys of residential areas with thermal imaging to visualize energy losses and promote energy conservation have a long history" [3, p. 163].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

[3]    J. Carlson, D. Menicucci, P. Vorobieff, A. Mammoli, and H. He, “Infrared imaging method for flyby assessment of solar thermal panel operation in field settings,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 163-171, Sept. 2014. Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2018. [Online]. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.05.008

Journal articles

Electronic journal article from a library database

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Quantum dots, also known as nanoparticles, are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties [3].

Frishberg and Gobble [3] contend that quantum dots will power the next generation of computers.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"Rapidly evolving semiconductor technologies have reduced the size of the chips that drive most modern devices" [3, p. 7].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles from a library database make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: database homepage URL

[3]    M. Frishberg and M. M. Gobble, “Quantum dots: beyond solar cells,” Research Technology Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 7-8, May/June 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 13, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

Journal articles

Electronic journal article (internet article)

The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

Other examples include:

Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Current automobiles may have as many as fifty electronic control units (ECU) for various subsystems [3].

Mounika, Roy, and Ali [3] have implemented industrial parameter control through CAN protocol by using PIC microcontroller.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a serial, asynchronous, multi-master communication protocol for connecting electronic control modules in automobile and industrial applications" [3, p. 1249].

Reference list

When citing e-journal articles from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[3]    C. H. Mounika, K. S. Roy, and M. Ali, “Motor speed control based on temperature using CAN protocol,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, Apr. 2013. Accessed on: Oct. 28, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.ijettjournal.org/volume-4/issue-4/IJETT-V4I4P348.pdf

Magazines

Magazine article, print

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The plane will have greater payload capacity if the energy storage system is lighter [4].

When considering reduction of payload capacity, Burke [4] concluded that the weight reduction of the energy storage system would be beneficial.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

"The lighter the energy storage system, the greater the payload the plane will be able to carry and sustain in flight" [4, p. 33].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

[4]    K. A. Burke, “High energy density regenerative fuel cells systems for terrestrial applications,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 23-34, Dec. 1999.

Magazines

Magazine article, online

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As mentioned in [4], new machines will be as adaptable as our brains.

It is Rothganger’s [4] hypothesis that machines will become more like humans.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Rothganger describes artificial intelligence as "the dream of a thinking machine" [4, p. 24].

Reference list

When citing magazine articles from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[4]    F. Rothganger, “Special report: can we copy the brain? The dawn of the real thinking machine,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 22-25, May 2017. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Online]. Available: IEEE database

Conferences

Published conference or proceedings paper

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A new software based application could improve fire safety in residential properties [6].

A new software based application was recommended by Ayubi, Miao and Shi [6] to improve fire safety in residential properties.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“The block based environment should be able to connect to excel to fetch the contact details; otherwise only being able to define workflow in the form of sequence of communication blocks is not fruitful” [6, pp. 677 – 678].

Reference list

When citing a published conference or proceedings paper make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of paper," in abbrev. Title of Proceedings, Place of Conference/Publication, (vol., no. if available), Year (only if not already stated in title), pp. first and last pages of paper.

[6]    S. Ayubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," in 13th Int. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, Dec. 2014, pp. 675-680.

Conferences

Unpublished conference or proceedings paper

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A new method for system identification using Extended Kalman Filter is discussed in [4].

Best [4] discusses a new method for system identification by utilising a simplified Extended Kalman Filter.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“The filter identifies a linear model of any order from multiple input and multiple output data sources alone, without the need for any understanding of the underlying system dynamics” [4, p. 7].

Reference list

When citing an unpublished conference or proceedings paper make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of paper, presented at the abbrev. Title and Year of Conference. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[4]    M. C. Best, "Linear MIMO model identification using an extended Kalman filter," presented at the ICMICE 2015: 17th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control Engineering. Accessed on: Nov. 17, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/17386

Reports

Report, print (individual author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The report outlined the opportunity for councils to develop . . . [6].

The development of the road management practices outlined by Verity and Roorda [6] in the report will ensure . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

The Road Management Report was prepared to “Provide information and advice to Council, summarising the findings and recommendations of the Road Management Plan Working Group" [6, p. 3].

Reference list

When citing reports from a print source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number/Type (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

[6]    S. Verity and J. Roorda, “Road Management Report: Road Asset Benchmarking Project 2014,” NSW Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia, Sydney, NSW, Working Paper 240, Nov. 2015.

Reports

Report, print (corporate author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The roles and mission of NASA centre scientists are fully discussed in [6].

In its report, NASA [6] presents observations regarding these issues [6].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

This will become even more critical in “A new, leaner NASA, with its increased emphasis on NASA-university-industry partnerships" [6, p. 2].

Reference list

When citing reports from a print source with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Organisation/company name, "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number/Type (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

[6]    NASA, “Lunar Sample Studies,” NASA, Washington, DC, Rep. 1, 1977.

Reports

Report, electronic (individual author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The report [6] explores autonomous vehicle costs and benefits, and investigates how quickly self-driving vehicles are likely to be developed and deployed.

Litman [6] investigates how quickly self-driving vehicles are likely to be developed and deployed based on experience with previous autonomous-vehicle technologies.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Litman states that “Autonomous vehicle implementation could be slower and less complete than optimistic predictions” [6, p. 18].

Reference list

When citing reports from an electronic source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number (if not in title), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[6]    T. A. Litman, “Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning,” Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Apr. 24, 2018. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.vtpi.org/avip.pdf

Reports

Report, online (corporate author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Java is used by more than 9 million developers to create applications for everything from smart cards and intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) devices to enterprise servers and the cloud [6].

Oracle [6] still continues to heavily invest in the Java platform, as it remains the world’s #1 programming language.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Oracle emphasises the importance of open standards and open technology strategies, which has resulted in its IT solutions being “Complete, open and integrated” [6, p. 40].

Reference list

When citing reports from an online source with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report number (if not in title), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[6]    The Oracle Corporation, “Corporate Citizenship Report 2014,” Oracle, Redwood Shores, CA, 2015. Accessed on Dec. 5, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/citizenship/corporate-citizenship-report-2563684.pdf

Handbooks or manuals

Handbook or manual (print)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The rules set in [7] apply to all persons working on or near high voltage and low voltage electrical apparatus associated with Essential Energy’s electricity network.

Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual [7] delineates the general principles for work on or near isolated low voltage exposed conductors.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Low Voltage (LV) is defined as “A nominal voltage exceeding 50 volts alternating current or 120 volts direct current, but not exceeding 1000 volts alternating current or 1500 volts direct current” [7, p. 12].

Reference list

When citing print handbooks or manuals make sure to include the following information where available:

Title of Manual/Handbook, ed. (edition, except the first). Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Year of Publication.

[7]    Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual, 2nd ed. Wiley Pub., Indianapolis, IN, 2003.

Handbooks or manuals

Handbook or manual (electronic)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author's name.

The rules set in [7] apply to all persons working on or near high voltage and low voltage electrical apparatus associated with Essential Energy’s electricity network.

The Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030 [7] govern the Essential Energy’s work practices to ensure all its employees or persons, including visitors and contractors, comply with its safety policies and procedures.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Low Voltage (LV) is defined as “A nominal voltage exceeding 50 volts alternating current or 120 volts direct current, but not exceeding 1000 volts alternating current or 1500 volts direct current” [7, p. 12].

Reference list

When citing electronic handbooks or manuals make sure to include the following information where available:

Title of Manual/Handbook, ed. (edition, except the first). Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[7]    Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030, no. 15. Essential Energy, Aug. 15, 2017. Accessed on: May. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://documents.essentialenergy.com.au/CEOP8030.pdf

Webpages

Webpage (individual author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Scientists are considering the ways of developing new materials for the future by investigating the wood formation process [8].

While wood continues to be a mainstay in the building industry, Holland’s [8] latest research implies a development of a range of new wood-inspired materials in the future.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

The system that can induce secondary wall cellulose formation in all cells of a plant uses “A master regulator, or a transcription factor, that switches on genes in the plant that are specific for wood production” [8, para. 16].

Reference list

When citing webpages with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Webpage, Publisher/Production information (if relevant), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[7]    D. Holland, Finding the Building Blocks of Wood, The University of Melbourne, June 6, 2018. Accessed on: June 18, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/finding-the-building-blocks-of-wood?utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_medium=social&utm_content=story

Webpages

Webpage (corporate author)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As part of the country’s goal to use renewable energy, Hydro Tasmania’s specialist power and water consulting firm is helping the Cook Islands reduce reliance on diesel fuel [8].

Engineers Australia [8] has highlighted the Government’s commitment to addressing the climate change challenge.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

Engineers Australia reports that “Climate change poses a particular risk to the Cook Islands due to sea level rise, extreme rainfall events, storm surges, strong winds and extreme high air temperatures” [8, para. 6].

Reference list

When citing webpages with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

Organisation/Company name, Title of Webpage, Publisher/Production information (if relevant), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[7]    Engineers Australia, Cook Islands Renewable Energy, Engineers Australia, Engineering House, Barton, ACT, Australia, July 15, 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/news/cook-islands-renewable-energy

Audiovisual media

DVD

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

In [9], explored are some of the world’s most ambitious engineering marvels.

Hammond [9] investigates how it was possible to build humanity’s greatest engineering marvels.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

Hammond explores the hidden architecture of each structure to expose “An incredible array of ideas, technologies and sometimes bizarre inventions that span history” [9].

Reference list

When citing a DVD make sure to include the following information where available:

Producer(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), Title of DVD, xth ed. [Type of medium]. Production City, (U.S. State or Country if the City is not "well known"): Production Company, Year of Production.

Note: If no Producer(s) are stated, use Director(s) instead.

[9]    R. Hammond, Engineering Connections, Series Three. [DVD]. Collingwood, Australia: Special Broadcasting Service Corporation, 2011.

Audiovisual media

Streaming video

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Glass architecture is today prevalent more than ever [9].

Michael Blackwood Productions [9] reveal a new product that is replacing the glass used just twenty years ago.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

As seen in [9], “As a highly engineered product, glass has emerged in a new light as an apparently culturally accepted material in design and construction”.

Reference list

When citing a streaming video make sure to include the following information where available:

Production company, Title of Video, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[9]    Michael Blackwood Productions, Engineered Transparency: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2007. Accessed on: Feb. 18, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

Audiovisual media

Video tutorial

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Every computer program is a series of instructions, that is, a sequence of separate small commands, one after the other [9].

Allardice [9] asserts that there have been hundreds of programming languages since the start of computing.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

As explained in [9, para. 6], “We write the source code that will at some point be translated then into machine code, so it can run on the computer”.

Reference list

When citing a video tutorial make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Video Tutorial, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

[9]    S. Allardice, Programming Foundations: Fundamentals, Sept. 22, 2011. Accessed on: June 3, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Lynda.com database

Audiovisual media

Audio podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

At a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale [8].

Schiffrin [8] states that at a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

According to Schiffrin, "We can look at a chunk of material, but at a small scale, and it behaves completely differently than what we might expect" [8].

Reference list

When citing an audio podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[8]    A. Schiffrin, “Materials go nano,” Science Extra, Jan. 8, 2017. Sydney, Australia: ABC Radio National. Accessed on: May 12, 2017. [Podcast]. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceextra/materials-go-nano/8117286

Audiovisual media

Video podcast

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

As women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science [8].

Dhopade et al. [8] state, since women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

"Women do bring a different perspective to science and they think about things a little bit differently" [8].

Reference list

When citing a video podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[8]    P. Dhopade, S. Ober-Blobaum, E. Stride, A. Castro-Castellon, and E. Watson, “Women in engineering,” Women in Science, Aug. 1, 2016. Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford. Accessed on May 12, 2017. [Vodcast]. Available: https://www.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/women-engineering

Other sources

Blog

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs [9].

Pterneas [9] relates that updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

"The initial version of Kinect allowed us to track up to 20 body joints. The second version allows up to 25 joints. The new joints include the fists and thumbs!" [9].

Reference list

When citing a blog make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of blog post,” Title of Blog, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[9]    V. Pterneas, “Kinect for windows version 2: body tracking,” Vangos Pterneas, Mar. 13, 2014. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Blog]. Available: http://pterneas.com/2014/03/13kinect-for-windows-version-2-body-tracking/

Other sources

Lecture notes

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The issue was highlighted in [6] indicating how necessary it is to consider ....

Reference list

When citing lecture notes make sure to include the following information where available:

Lecturer(s) initial(s). Family name(s), Class Lecture, Topic: "Lecture title." Unit Code, College/Faculty, University, Location, Abbrev. Month, Day, Year.

[6] V. Navaratnam, Class Lecture, Topic: "Electric circuits briefing.” NEF1204, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Aug., 12, 2015.

Other sources

Figures, tables and equations

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) performance is directly related to its congestion control mechanism [10].

If citing a Figure in-text: For more details, refer to [10, Fig. 4].

If citing a table in-text: For more details, refer to [10, Tab. 2].

Or, if citing an equation in text: For more details, refer to [10, eq. (2)].

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

“Simulation time for each experiment test is set to 300 seconds and no background traffic is used” [10, p. 4].

Reference list

The reference of the figure, table or equation is included in the reference list in accordance with the source format within which this information is provided. Reference the book, journal article, report or another source where the figure, table or equation appeared.

For example, reference the journal article source format for the figure, table or the equation in the above example.

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), page or pages where the figure, table or equation appeared, abbrev. Month (if available). Year of Publication.

[10]    M. Ahmad, S. Jabbar, A. Ahmad, F. Piccialli, and G. Jeon, "A sustainable solution to support data security in high bandwidth healthcare remote locations by using TCP CUBIC mechanism," IEEE Trans. Sustain. Comput., vol. 20, no. 20, p. 4, May 2016.

Other sources

Patents (print)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

An alternating-current magneto-machine was used as the source of supply [10].

In carrying out his invention, Tesla [10] provided a series of inducing-coils and corresponding induced coils which he wound upon an annulus or the subdivided ring.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

“The invention relates to those systems of electrical distribution in which a current from a single source of supply in a main or transmitting circuit is caused to induce a current or currents in an independent working circuit or circuits” [10, para. 2].

Reference list

When citing a patent from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of patent,” Patent's country of origin and number, abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

[10]    N. Tesla, "System of electrical distribution," United States Patent 390413, Oct. 2, 1888.

Other sources

Patents (online)

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

A fixing system for an electric plate has been proposed [10].

Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. [10] recognised that improvements are possible.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

“The fixing system for an electrical plate provides manifold advantages” [10, Sec. 5].

Reference list

When citing a patent from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

Invention name, by Inventor(s) Initial(s). Family name(s). (Year, abbrev. Month. Day). Patent Number. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file (or database name)

[10]    Fixing system for an electrical plate, by Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22). Patent 2016905338. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

Other sources

Personal communication

Examples of personal communication include:

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

The research philosophy reflects the authors’ beliefs in gathering, analysing, and using data about the BIM implementation in Australia [10].

Khosrowshahi [10] analyses the current readiness and maturity level of Australia’s construction industry to adopt BIT.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

The research “attempts to apply the existing knowledge about BIM in its implementation in Australia” [10].

Reference list

When citing a personal communication make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), private communication, abbrev. Month. Year.

[10]    F. Khosrowshahi, private communication, Apr. 2018.

Other sources

Standards

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

Safe work practices on or near low-voltage electrical installations and equipment were outlined in [10].

Australian/New Zealand Standards [10] addressed the requirement for safe work on or near low-voltage electrical installations and equipment.

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

The standard provides “A minimum set of procedures, safety requirements and recommendations to manage the hazards associated with electricity, specifically arc blast, arc flash, electric shock and electrocution” [10].

Reference list

When citing a standard make sure to include the following information where available:

Title of Standard, Standard Number, Year.

[10]    Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and Equipment, AS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011.

Other sources

Theses and dissertations

Paraphrasing in-text

When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity are the major cause for global warming [10].

A reliable power discussed by Krishnan [10] is paramount . . .

Direct quote in-text

When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

According to Krishnan, “A reliable power is paramount and loss of power to communication equipment can mean loss of service to clients and loss of millions of dollars to industries” [10, p. 10].

Reference list

When citing a thesis make sure to include the following information where available:

Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of thesis or dissertation," Type of thesis (Ph.D. dissertation or M.S. thesis), abbrev. Department, abbrev. University, Place of Publication City (U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

[10]    K. Jegathala Krishnan, “Implementation of renewable energy to reduce carbon consumption and fuel cell as a back-up power for national broadband network (NBN) in Australia,” Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, Australia, 2013. Accessed on: June 16, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/25679/