Victoria University

Referencing for students: VU Harvard style

Using Harvard

Introduction to Harvard

Important: this is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Harvard is an author-date referencing style.

Harvard style requires in-text references and the reference list.

In-text references appear within the body of the document. They include the author(s) family name and the year of publication, with extra details if required, such as page numbers.

A reference list provides full details of all in-text references at the end of the document.

Additional resources

Refer to the Victoria University Harvard referencing guide Opens in new window .

Harvard Referencing: The Basics (video) Opens in new window .

Victoria University referencing guides Opens in new window .

Using Harvard

General rules for in-text references

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

Do not overuse direct quotes.

Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots (...) and another space. For example: Gray (2018, p. 188) suggests that the 'most interesting ... finding is the significant difference in whether SNS interaction is seen in the same way as face-to-face interaction'.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Gray (2018, p. 175) observes that 'much of the discourse surrounding young people's social media use focuses on negative effects, such as depression, social isolation and cyberbullying'.

Middle of a sentence

In their discussion of the practical benefits of creativity in enhacing resilience, Puccio, Cabra and Schwagler (2018, p. 75) note that 'creative thinking is about seeing, and generating, many possibilities' which can help people to better see their way through challenging situations.

End of a sentence

'Look at what you have and simply use it for the purpose that you bought it' (Brown n.d., para. 8).

Block quotations

Quotes of more than 25 words in length are known as block quotations.

Block quotes need to start on a new line and be indented from the text margin without single inverted commas (quotation marks).

At the end of the quote, include the reference details such as author name, year and page number(s) in parentheses.

The Australian cultural renaissance of the post-war era is well documented but it is debatable whether the concept of an Australian fashion identity has permeated beyond our shores:

The idea of "fashion" as being a characteristic of Australian culture is frequently regarded as a non sequitur. Fashion is seen as belonging to far-flung cosmopolitan sites elsewhere while Australia is a far-flung site cut off from the trappings of civilization. Equally, Australia has long been regarded as being cut off from the "finer things" of civility, fashion,and good taste. At best, an Australian sense of style is regarded as anything that is practical, informal, and casual — T-shirts, practical footwear, moleskin trousers, and wide-brim hats; as an outfit thrown together without much thought (Craik 2010, p. 158).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

An in-text reference can be inserted at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

Beginning of a sentence

Smee (2018) highlights the importance of environmental remediation of farm gullies to prevent soil run-off and improve the health of the reef.

Middle of a sentence

Exploring the tragic death of the celebrated artist, Loving Vincent (2017) is the first fully painted feature film.

End of a sentence

A major factor influencing the way feedback is given to students appears to be discipline area norms (Winstone & Boud 2017).

Using Harvard

Multiple works by the same author(s) in the same year

Identify works by the same author(s) in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth, to the year in both the in-text reference and the reference list entry.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The illustrations in Branford & Coutts books for children (2015a, 2015b) highlight how line drawings add to the textual message.

Reference list entry

In the reference list, identify works by the same author(s) in the same year by adding letters a, b, c, and so forth to the year (for example: 2015a).

Try to identify the sequence in which the works were published. If the sequence cannot be determined, put the references in alphabetical order by title.

Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015a, The precious ring, Walker Books Australia, Newtown, NSW.

Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015b, The wishing seed, Walker Books Australia, Newtown, NSW.

Using Harvard

Referencing Works by different first authors with the same family name

In a single document, to identify works by different first authors with the same family name insert the initials of the first author’s given name(s).

It is argued that ... (Johnston, A 2016) but E.L. Johnston (2018) claims that ... .

Reference list entry

In the reference list, order works by different first authors with the same family name alphabetically by the first initial.

Johnston, A 2016, 'Motivation and the academic - where the drivers sit', Journal of Management Development, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 765-777.

Johnston, EL 2018, 'Why are scientists so quiet?: cultural and philosophical constraints on the public voice of the scientist', Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales, vol. 151, no. 467/468, p. 50.

Using Harvard

Multiple references in the same parentheses

When including two or more references in the same parentheses in a sentence, list all references alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon (;).

It has been claimed that… (Crauder et al. 2018; Sprague 2018; Sweeney 2018; Wilmott, Fraser & Lammes 2018).

Using Harvard

Personal communication

Include personal communication, such as face-to-face interviews, conversations, telephone calls, letters or emails, in an in-text reference.

Information about personal communication must be included in the in-text reference. Include the type of personal communication (for example: personal conversation, email, interview, telephone conversation), year and the exact date in a day-month format.

However, personal communication references do not need to be included in the reference list.

An email (JW Ayers 2018, personal communication, 2 February) confirming that results are accurate ...

During an interview conducted on 6 June 2018, Prof Helena Moore stated that …

Using Harvard

Secondary citation

Use a secondary citation to acknowledge the work of an author(s) that has been directly quoted or paraphrased in another author's work.

In the in-text reference, include the original source of information and the source you have used. For example, if a book by Hurlbut cites Stark, refer to both Stark and Hurlbut.

'…new forms of oversight and ethical review were integrated into growing bureaucracies of big bioscience’ (Stark, cited in Hurlbut 2018, p.3).

Stark (cited in Hurlbut 2018) claims that...

In the reference list, include only the source you have used. In this example, you would only need to include the Hurlbut reference.

Hurlbut, JB 2017, Experiments in democracy: human embryo research and the politics of bioethics, Columbia University Press, New York.

Using Harvard

General rules for the reference list

Place of publication

If the place of publication is not commonly known (for example: Harlow) or the place of publication could be located in two or more countries, additional information is required.

For Australia and the United States, add the abbreviated name of the State.

Fitzroy, VIC or Delmar, NY

For the United Kingdom, add the abbreviation UK.

Harlow, UK

For other countries, add the name of the country.

Using Harvard

Example of a reference list

Below is an example of a reference list displaying various resource types including a book, conference paper, journal article, legal case, newspaper article, podcast, web resource and thesis.

Reference List

Allen, MC & Zuboff, T & Black, R 1994, 'Instructional designers in Australia: the state of play', Distance Education, vol. 16, no.1, pp. 26-34.

Binder, G 2009, Corporate governance in Arab countries: development of corporate governance in Arab and MENA countries, University of Vienna, Vienna.

Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015a, The precious ring, Walker Books Australia, Newtown, NSW.

Branford, A & Coutts, L 2015b, The wishing seed, Walker Books Australia, Newtown, NSW.

Buckley, R 2001, 'Presentation on the application of regulatory and voluntary instruments for sustainable tourism development in small islands', Island tourism in Asia and the Pacific: a report on WTO/UNEP international conference on sustainable tourism in the islands of the Asia-Pacific region, Sanya, Island of Hainan, China, 6-8 December 2000, World Tourism Organization, Madrid, pp. 46-64.

Gary, S 2010, 'Solar max sends journos spinning', Star Stuff, podcast, ABC Science, Sydney, NSW, 1 September, accessed 31 August 2010,<http://www.abc.net.au/science/starstuff/>.

Grasswell, H (producer) 2011, The Gavin Larkin Story - Australian Story, television broadcast, Australian Broadcasting Service, 12 September, viewed 17 October 2011, <search.informit.com.au.library.vu.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=TEX20113700853;res=TVNEWS>.

HealthInsite 2011, Complementary and alternative therapies, National Health Call Centre Network, viewed 14 September 2011, <http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/Complementary and Alternative Therapies>.

James Hardie Industries NV v Australian Securities and Investments Commission (2010) 274 ALR 85

Standards Australia 2008, Personal floatation devices - General requirements, AS 4758.1-2008, viewed 17 October 2011, retrieved from Australian Standards Online.

Weinberg, RS & Gould, D 2011, Foundations of sport and exercise psychology, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL.

Wilson, J 2009, 'In defence of the superficial', The Age, 26 September, A2, p. 23.

Wynne, BM 2003, Shark repellent system, US 6606963.

Book

Book with one author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

‘I have enclosed a lake in lips, lapped it with crystal tongues’ (Hasler 2018, p. 39).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. Use of page numbers is optional.

In her prose, Emily Hasler talks about enclosing a lake in lips (2018, p. 39).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Hasler, E 2018, The built environment, Liverpool University Press, Liverpool.

Book with multiple authors

List authors in the order they are listed in the book.

Two or three authors

Use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

According to Puccio, Cabra and Schwagler (2018, p. 149) 'prototypes, even those with mistakes, permit you to speed up feedback and failure'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Prototyping, even when you encounter problems, is a key process because it allows you to move more quickly through both failures and assessment of those failures (Puccio, Cabra & Schwagler 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Puccio, GJ, Cabra, JF & Schwagler, N 2018, Organizational creativity: a practical guide for innovators & entrepreneurs, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Four or more authors

For in-text citations, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year.

Direct quote

Crauder et al. (2018, p. 99) note that graphs 'allow us to visualize information, which helps us to see patterns that may not be readily apparent...'.

Paraphrasing

Patterns in the data become evident when it is visualised in a graph (Crauder et al. 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Crauder, B, Eoxfords, B, Johnson, J & Noell, A 2018, Quantitative literacy: thinking between the lines, W.H. Freeman, New York, NY.

Book

Book whose author is an organisation

Where the author is an organisation, use the name of the organisation as the author.

Direct quote

'Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the analysis of random phenomena' (Britannica Educational Publishing 2018, p. 99).

Paraphrase

The need to convert large amounts of data into useful information is driving both theoretical and practical advances in statistics (Britannica Educational Publishing 2018).

Reference list entry

Britannica Educational Publishing 2018, Statistics and probability, Britannica Educational Publishing, Chicago, IL.

Book

Classical works

If you are quoting a verse or extract from plays or poetry, or from the Bible (for e.g.), provide details of acts, scenes, verses, passages, etc.

Direct quote

'Remain in me, and I will remain in you. No branch can bear fruit by itself' (John 15:4, New International Version).

Paraphrase

William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet, act 3, scene 2, line 74 illustrates the involvement of family ...

Reference list entry

If you are quoting a verse or extract, you do not need to provide a reference entry. If you are referring to a particular edition for a significant reason, reference in the same way as a print book.

Multiple books by the same author

Order the citations of two or more works by placing the publication years after the author name in chronological order.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Perceptions of an event have more impact than the event itself, so accurate perceptions are key (Fujishin 2016, 2018).

Reference list entry

Arrange works by the same author by year of publication, with the earliest year first. Use the initial of the author's given name(s).

Fujishin, R 2016, Natural bridges: a guide to interpersonal communication, Routledge, Abbingdon, England.

Fujishin, R 2018, The natural speaker, 9th edn, Routledge, New York.

Books

Generally, an edited book includes chapters written by different authors.

Book chapter

When using a book chapter in an in-text reference, use the author(s) details of the chapter and not the editor(s) details of the book.

If you use an edited book (where the chapters have no identifying author(s) details) in an in-text reference, use the editor(s) family name(s) as the author(s), (see below).

Direct quote in-text

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

‘Special economic zones were the earliest to be established in China’ (Wang 2018, p. 137).

Paraphrasing in-text

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Wang (2018) notes that the earliest of China's established development zones were the special economic zones.

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Wang, S 2018, ‘From special economic zones to special technological zones’, in C Hsieh & M Lu (eds), Changing China: a geographic appraisal, Taylor & Francis, Boulder, CO, pp. 137-155.

Edited book

Direct quote in-text

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the editor/author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

‘Whether a global culture exists or not is unclear’ (ed. Smith 2018, p. 29).

Paraphrasing in-text

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the editor/author(s) in your own words.

Smith (ed. 2018) questions whether we can definitely state that a global culture exists.

Reference list entry

In the reference list, for an edited book, add (ed.) for a single editor and (eds) for two or more editors.

Smith, KL (ed.) 2018, Sociology of globalization: cultures, economies, and politics, Routledge, Boulder, CO.

Books

E-books retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print books.

E-book from a Library database

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading or chapter number. The word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

'The key point about relationship marketing is the recognition that customers who make repeat purchases have a high lifetime value' (Bowie et al. 2018, p. 628).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Relationship marketing is more than a practical toolkit, it is a mindset that prioritises customer retention (Bowie et al. 2018).

Reference list entry

For e-books sourced from Victoria University Library databases, the Reference List entry is the same as for a print book.

Bowie, D, Buttle, F, Brookes, M & Mariussen, A 2018, Hospitality marketing, Routledge, London.

For e-books sourced from e-readers, add the format 'eReader version' following the title and replace the publisher and place of publication with the date accessed and the name of the provider (for example: accessed 18 May 2018 from Amazon.com).

E-book from a website

Direct quote

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, chapter number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para. and the word chapter can be abbreviated to ch.

Over a century ago Fetter (1904, p. 269) stated that the 'need of anticipating demand is greater to-day than ever before, and this requires large investments months and even years in advance'.

Paraphrasing

Fetter (1904) referred to a 'business organiser', or 'enterpriser', this is what we might call today an 'entrepreneur'.

Reference list entry

For e-books sourced from the internet, add the viewed date (for example: viewed 21 January 2019) and the URL address enclosed in angled brackets (< and >) rather than the place of publication.

Fetter, FA 1904, The principles of economics: with applications to practical problems, Century, viewed 21 January 2019, <https://www.gutenberg.org/files/40077/40077-h/40077-h.htm>.

Books

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author

If there is no author, cite the encyclopedia or dictionary title and the year. Italicise the encyclopedia or dictionary title.

An encyclopedia or dictionary entry without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the source. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

Curriculum can be understood as 'the totality of the specified learning opportunities available in one educational institution' (Dictionary of education 2015, curriculum entry).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the source in your own words.

The Dictionary of education (2015) notes that curriculum is the Latin word for a running track where competitions were held for entertainment.

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Encyclopedia or dictionary entry with an author

Direct quote

‘Russia, which is officially the Russian Federation, is by far the world’s largest country, spanning two continents…’ (Riches & Stalker 2016, p. 1).

If no page number is available, add the title of the entry.

Paraphrasing

In 2016, Russia's population was estimated at 143.99 million, of which 74% were living in urban areas (Riches & Stalker 2016).

Reference list entry

In your reference list:

Riches, C & Stalker, P 2016, ‘Russia’, A guide to countries of the world, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

For an encyclopedia or dictionary sourced online from a Victoria University Library database, reference the source as though you were referencing the print copy.

Books

As details will vary for brochures, exhibition catalogues or pamphlets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If there is no author, cite the publication title and the year. Italicise the publication title.

Brochure or pamphlet

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a section heading.

'Our services are culturally appropriate and delivered by caring and experienced multilingual workers' (Australian Multicultural Community Services 2018, Home care packages and private care section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The brochure outlines services available to support seniors to live independently (Australian Multicultural Community Services 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Australian Multicultural Community Services 2018, Multicultural home care & other support services, brochure, Australian Multicultural Community Services, Maidstone, VIC.

Exhibition catalogue

Direct quote

'The artworks produced are powerful motifs of each participant’s experience of death (Bell 2017, p. 2).

Paraphrasing

Co-created with members of staff of the hospital these works offer personal insights and perspectives about life and death (Bell 2017).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Bell, C 2017, We die as we live, exhibition catalogue, 1 November - 30 November, St Vincent's Private Hospital Foyer, East Melbourne.

Journal articles

Journal articles retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print journal articles.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks), for example (`Put children first' 2018).

Journal article with a single author

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

According to Gray (2018, p. 175), there is 'significant gender and age differences related to how young people use SNS'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Gray (2018) suggests that young people's perception of Social Networking is related to their association with their offline lives.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Gray, L 2018, 'Exploring how and why young people use social networking sites', Educational Psychology in Practice, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 175-194.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume, issue (if supplied), page details.

'Put children first' 2018, Therapy Today, vol. 29, no. 10, p. 6.

Journal articles

Journal articles retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print journal articles.

Journal article with two or three authors

For two or three authors, use the full word 'and' when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'Encouraging outside engagement within this university activity course provided fun opportunities to be physically active, but also provided students with the skills to continue being active following the course' (Blocker & Wahl-Alexander 2018, p. 61).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Blocker and Wahl-Alexander (2018) note that getting students to commit to activity outside class scheduling is difficult due to their study routines and responsibilities.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Blocker, D & Wahl-Alexander, Z 2018, 'Using sport education in a university physical activity course', JOPERD: The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 56-61.

Journal articles

Journal articles retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print journal articles.

Journal article with four or more authors

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'In anthropized habitats, non-native invasive species are often widespread and abundant' (Battisti et al. 2018, p. 37).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Battisti et al. (2018) stress that a focus on non-native invasive species in an education setting should be paired with awareness-raising of their ecological impact.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Battisti, C, Fanelli, G, Bertolino, S, Luiselli, L, Amori, G & Gippoliti, S 2018, 'Non-native invasive species as paradoxical ecosystem services in urban conservation education', Web Ecology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 37-40.

Journal article

Article from a Library database

Journal articles retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print journal articles.

For two or three authors, use the full word 'and' when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks), for example (`Put children first' 2018).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Wearable sensing technologies, at first glance, seem to be a simple step towards personal-data positivity' (Wilmott, Fraser & Lammes 2018, p. 80).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Wilmott, Fraser and Lammes (2018) explore the idea of the quantified self and the blurring of work and play.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Wilmott, C, Fraser, E & Lammes, S 2018, 'I am he. I am he. Siri rules: work and play with the Apple Watch', European Journal of Cultural Studies, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 78-95.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), page numbers (if available).

Journal articles

Article from a webpage

For two or three authors, use the full word ‘and’ when mentioning authors in a sentence. Use an ampersand (&) when listing authors in round brackets.

For four or more authors, give only the first author's family name, followed by "et al." and the publication year in the in-text reference.

If there is no author(s), reference the title of the article and the year. Enclose the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) for example (`Put children first' 2018).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Creativity can be identified in terms of creative thinking through the evaluation of divergent thinking and creative problem solving abilities' (Celume, Besançon & Zenasni 2019, Introduction section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Celume, Besançon and Zenasni (2019) suggest that pretend-play can be understood as the way children pretend to interact with imaginary objects, often accompanied by object-appropriate sounds and actions.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Celume M-P, Besançon M & Zenasni F 2019, 'Fostering children and adolescents’ creative thinking in education: theoretical model of drama pedagogy training', Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 9, viewed 11 February 2019, <https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02611>.

If there is no author(s), begin the reference list citation with the title of the article in single inverted commas (quotation marks) followed by the year, Journal title (italicised), volume details (if supplied), issue details (if supplied), viewed date, URL address.

Newspaper articles

Printed newspaper article with no author

If there is no author, reference the newspaper title and the date and year (for example: 11 February 2019). Italicise the newspaper title.

A newspaper article without an author does not need to be included in the reference list.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the source. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

'In Victoria, depending on your situation, your family may be eligible to receive free or discounted uniforms, shoes, textbooks, stationery and more' (The Age 24 January 2018, p. 3).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the source in your own words.

Financial support for parents with school-age children differs depending on the State or Territory (The Age 24 January 2018).

Reference list entry

No entry needed in the reference list.

Printed newspaper article with a known author

Direct quote

'Other hip inner-city areas where there have been an influx of twentysomethings - places such as St Kilda, Hawthorn, Brunswick and Prahran - are simultaneously undergoing an exodus of thirtysomethings' (Schultz & Butt 2018, p. 10).

Paraphrasing

How often, and where, we move in Melbourne shifts with age (Schultz & Butt 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Schultz, A & Butt, C 2018, 'The life cycle of Melburnians: how we age and move', The Age, 7 April, p. 10.

Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a Library database

Newspaper articles retrieved from a Library database are referenced in the same way as print newspaper articles.

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a Library database, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Sprague (2018, p. 28) notes that many 'foundations put their effort into finding the right causes with the right people and right governance, and then hand across the money and let the experts be in charge'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

...suggesting that the topic of philanthropy will often be tied up with questions of tax (Sprague 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Sprague, J 2018, 'Make it count', The Australian Financial Review, 27 April, The Australian Financial Review Magazine, p. 28.


Newspaper articles

Newspaper article from a webpage [HTML format]

If there is no author(s) for a newspaper article from a webpage, follow the guidelines for a printed newspaper article (with no author).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Rainfall causes 'tunnel erosion' in the gullies, stripping out large sections of subsoil' (Smee 2018, para. 9).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Working to remediate soil erosion affecting Queensland cattle stations may help improve the water runoff negatively impacting the Great Barrier Reef ... (Smee 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Smee, B 2018, 'Deep in cattle country, graziers go against the flow to help the Great Barrier Reef', The Guardian, 20 May, viewed 21 May 2018, <https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/21/deep-in-cattle-country-graziers-go-against-the-flow-to-help-the-great-barrier-reef>.

Social media or webpages

Blog or blog post

A blog or blog post is usually referenced as you would a webpage.

If there is no author(s) name use the username instead (for example: Thesis Whisperer).

List the format of the entry (for example: weblog or weblog post).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 12 February, 9.20 am).

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Include the location of the direct quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'This means the environment must have been extremely different in the past that it could support this species' (Ecker 2018, para. 4).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Ecker's (2018) research at the Wonderwerk Cave in South Africa gives an insight into how this environment evolved over millions of years and, in turn, how these changes drove human evolution.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Ecker, M 2018, ‘A very different environment for early toolmakers in South Africa’, Oxford Science Blog, weblog post, 21 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/science-blog/very-different-environment-early-toolmakers-south-africa>.

Thesis Whisperer 2018, 'Perfectionism is a sprectrum disorder', The Thesis Whisperer, weblog post, 5 December, viewed 12 February 2019, <https://thesiswhisperer.com/2018/12/05/perfectionism-is-a-spectrum-disorder/>.

Social media or webpages

Social media entry

Social media is usually referenced as you would a website.

If there is no author’s name use the username instead.

List the name of the platform (for example: Twitter, Facebook).

If an author posts multiple entries on one day, include the time after the date (for example: 12 February, 9.20 am).

For social media accounts that are not publicly accessible (for example: a private Facebook page), the social media entry should be referenced as personal communication.

Consider carefully whether information sourced from social media is appropriate for your academic work.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

This common error was highlighted in a recent Tweet, 'Did you know that superannuation contributions need to be listed on pay slips? It’s a common error we see' (Fair Work Ombudsman 2018).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Fair Work Ombudsman (2018) is using this social media platform to engage and educate.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Fair Work Ombudsman 2018, ‘Did you know superannuation contributions need to be listed on pay slips? It’s a common error we see’, Fairwork_gov_au, Twitter, 21 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <https://twitter.com/fairwork_gov_au/status/998687634380787712>.

Victoria University 2018, 'Students celebrate with 85% pass rates thanks to VU’s First Year Model', Victoria University, Melbourne Australia, Facebook, 23 May, viewed 23 May 2018, <https://www.facebook.com/victoria.university>.

Social media or webpages

Social media or webpages

Webpage or document

As details will vary for webpages or web documents, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

If a webpage or web document does not have an author(s) (individual or corporate), start with the title of the document in italics followed by the date. If there is no date, use n.d.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'Certified products are listed on the WaterMark Product Database and are identified by the WaterMark certification trademark, which must be marked on the product upon the granting of a WaterMark Licence' (Australian Building Codes Board 2019, para. 2).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

This brief overview of the WaterMark Certification Scheme outlines the requirements that ensure certain plumbing and drainage products are certified and authorised for relevant use (Australian Building Codes Board 2019).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Australian Building Codes Board 2017, Watermark Certification Scheme, Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Canberra, viewed 21 May 2018, <https://www.abcb.gov.au/Resources/Publications/Certification/WaterMark-Brochure>.

Author is an organisation

The author may be the same as the organisation hosting the website.

The author can also be the publisher.

Unknown date

The abbreviation n.d. may be used where there is no known date.

Reports and standards

Australian Bureau of Statistics report from the ABS website

For author details, use the full name of the Australian Bureau of Statistics in the first instance, rather than the abbreviation ABS.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'The average net worth for all Australian households in 2015–16 was $929,400, up from $835,300 in 2013–14 and $722,200 in 2005-06. Rising property values are the main contributor to this increase' (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017, Key Findings section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2017) the mean household net worth has steadily increased in the ten years between 2005 and 2015.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017, Household income and wealth, Australia, 2015-16, cat. no. 6523.0, ABS, Canberra, viewed 16 March 2018, <http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/ abs@.nsf//0/5F4BB49C975C64C9CA256D6B00827ADB?Opendocument>.

For an Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) report in print format; reference as a book, with the inclusion of the catalogue number (cat. no.) after the title.

Reports and standards

Government or organisation report from a website

Government reports may include departmental reports, reports of commissions of inquiry, committees of review and committees of parliament.

As details will vary for government or organisation reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

'The strategy recognised that closing the gap in Indigenous disadvantage would require long-term, generational commitment, with effort to be directed across a range of priority areas' (Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (PMC) 2018, p. 11).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet (2018) report notes that four of the original Closing the Gap targets expired in 2018, so the Government agenda needs to be refreshed.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet 2018, Closing the gap - Prime Minister's report 2018, Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet, Canberra, viewed 13 February 2019, <https://www.pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/reports/closing-the-gap-2018/sites/default/files/ctg-report-20183872.pdf?a=1>.

For a Government or organisation report in hard copy, reference in the same way as a book.

Reports and Standards

Standard from the Standards Australia database

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

The Standard defines a skilled person as a 'person with relevant education or experience to enable him or her to identify hazards and to take appropriate actions to reduce the risks to themselves and others' (Standards Australia 2018, p. 52).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Standard sets out the minimum safety requirements for AV and ICT equipment, this includes everything from design to operation of this equipment (Standards Australia 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Standards Australia 2018, Audio/video, information and communication technology equipment- safety requirements, AS 62368.1-2018, viewed 23 May 2018, retrieved from Australian Standards Online.

Company, Industry or Market Report

Company Report

As details will vary for company reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

BHP notes in their Sustainability Report (2017, p. 7) that they 'seek advice from external experts and forums on issues relating to sustainability as part of our decision-making process'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

BHP (2017) indicates that they are aware of challenges facing sustainable development around the world, and acknowledge the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

BHP 2017, BHP sustainability report for the year ended 30 June 2017, viewed 20 May 2018, <https://www.bhp.com/-/media/documents/investors/annual-reports/2017/bhpsustainabilityreport2017.pdf?>.

Company, Industry or Market Report

Company Annual Report

As details will vary for company annual reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

The company's most recent annual report acknowledges that 'competitive pressures are playing out in our financial performance and we expect challenging trading conditions experienced in FY18 to continue in FY19' (Telstra 2018, p. 14).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Telstra (2018) annual report states that the company is at a turning point where they are preparing to delivery on a bold new strategy.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Telstra 2018, Telstra annual report 2018, viewed 25 August 2018, retrieved from Orbis database.

Company, Industry or Market Report

Company Profile

As details will vary for company profiles, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

Tesla 'designs, develops, manufactures, and sells fully electric vehicles and advanced electric vehicle powertrain components and energy storage systems' (Marketline 2017, p. 4).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The Marketline (2017) report on Tesla Motors provides an overview of the business, its history, employees, products and services, and top competitors.

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Marketline 2017, Tesla Motors Inc., company profile, viewed 15 May 2018, retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Company, Industry or Market Report

Financial Data

As details will vary for financial data, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The S&P ASX200 daily index data for the 2016-2018 period (Datastream 2018) shows marked volitility...

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Datastream 2018, S&P ASX200 daily index data 2016-2018, viewed 20 March 2018, retrieved from Datastream database.

Company, Industry or Market Report

Industry Report

As details will vary for industry reports, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

The industry 'is highly competitive, with internal competition among employment placement and recruitment firms contributing to lower profit margins' (Ibisworld 2018, Current Performance section).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The employment placement and recruitment services industry has performed well over the last five years, and business confidence is amongst the key influences on this performance (Ibisworld 2018).

Reference list entry

In the reference list:

Ibisworld 2018, Employment placement and recruitment services in Australia: global industry report, viewed 7 March 2018, retrieved from IbisWorld database.

Audiovisual materials

DVD film or television program

Reference the title of the film or television program in italics followed by the date of the production.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the film or television program. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

... saying of her impression of Aida; 'we could feel that she was very secret, she didn't wanna talk, just a few words that was on the war [sic]' (Aida's Secrets 2017).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Aida's Secrets (2017) is a profoundly personal documentary exploring the experiences of displaced persons through the lens of one man's story.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Aida's secrets 2017, DVD, Music Box Films, Chicago, directed by Alon Schwarz & Shaul Schwarz.

When the war is over 2018, television program, Australian Story, ABC TV, Sydney, 9 April.

Audiovisual materials

Podcast

If the author(s) of the podcast is unknown, reference the title of the podcast and the year of the broadcast. Italicise the podcast title.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

Foot (2019) stated that 'the health claims come from blogs and articles and YouTube videos ...'.

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

In a conversation with Alex James, Foot (2019) spoke about the reported health benefits of tumeric.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Foot, G 2019, 'Health drinks: tumeric', The best thing since sliced bread?, podcast, 20 February, viewed 25 February 2019, <https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p071h3tx>.

Audiovisual materials

Streaming video / YouTube video

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is known, reference the video by the author(s) family or corporate name and the year of the video.

If the author(s) (individual or corporate) of the streaming/YouTube video is unknown, reference the title of the video (in italics) and the year of the video.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the video. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

A hint of Van Gogh's passion can be seen in this line from the film, 'he was always like that, always painting, day in day out, no matter what the weather' (Loving Vincent 2017).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

Over half the World's population will experience acute water scarcity for at least one month in a given year (Singh Sidhu 2018).

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Loving Vincent 2017, online video, Madmen Entertainment, viewed 1 June 2018, <https://vu.kanopy.com/video/loving-vincent-0>.

Singh Sidhu, B 2018, Are we running out of clean water, YouTube, 6 December, TED-Ed, viewed 13 February 2019, <https://youtu.be/OCzYdNSJF-k>.

Audiovisual materials

Sound Recording

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording (for example: album or CD) is known, reference the sound recording by the artist(s) family name or band name and the year of the sound recording.

If the author(s) (artists or band) of the sound recording is unknown, reference the title of the sound recording (in italics) and the year of the sound recording.

Generally, the title of the album or CD will be included in the in-text reference. However, if you have only listened to a single track, then the name of the single track will be included in the in-text reference.

Direct quote

A direct quote is when you are using the exact words from the sound recording. Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks).

There is defiance in the lyrics of All the stars, such as 'tell me what you gon' do to me, confrontation ain't nothing new to me, you could bring a bullet, bring a sword, bring a morgue, but you can't bring the truth to me' (Lamar & SZA 2018).

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

The soundtrack to the film Black Panther contains both songs from the film, such as All the stars (Lamar and SZA 2018) as well as others inspired by the film.

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Album or CD

Black panther: the album 2018, sound recording, Top Dawg, USA.

Single track

Lamar, K & SZA 2018, 'All the stars', on Black Panther: the album, sound recording, Top Dawg, USA.

Image / Table / Artwork

Image from a book

When referring to an image in a published book, provide identifying information for the work in your in-text reference, and provide the details of the book where the image was sourced in your Reference List.

In-text reference

When referring to an artwork in-text, identify the artist, the title of the work and other identifying features, such as the year of creation in your in-text reference.

Gertsakis's work, Their eyes will tell you, everything and nothing, 2017, in Millner and Moore (2018, p. 138) depicts…

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Millner, J & Moore, C 2018, Feminist perspectives on art: contemporary outtakes, Routledge, London.

Image / Table / Artwork

Image from Flickr

In-text reference

Where the artist/creator of an image is known, reference the work by the artist's surname and the year. Where the artist/creator is unknown, reference the work by the title of the image.

This photo showing a panorama of the Austrian mountains (Crazzolara 2018) is of high quality...

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Crazzolara, T 2018, Alpine panorama, image, Flickr, viewed 24 May 2018, <https://flic.kr/p/27fJCsF>.

Image / Table / Artwork

Image from a webpage

In-text reference

Where the artist/creator of an image is known, reference the work by the artist's surname and the year. Where the artist/creator is unknown, reference the work by the title of the image.

This photo contains many elements to plan a road trip (Kreisa 2018)...

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Kreisa, M 2018, 60+ vital first words and phrases to learn in a new language, image, FluentU Travel, viewed 24 May 2018, <https://www.fluentu.com/blog/first-phrases-to-learn-in-a-new-language/>.

Image / Table / Artwork

Original Artwork

In-text reference

When referring to an original artwork in your text, give the name of the artist, the title of the work (in italics) and the year of creation.

Jane Sutherland's masterly depiction of early morning light at the artist's camp in Box Hill was particularly admired in her painting The Mushroom Gatherers (1895).

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Sutherland, J 1895, The mushroom gatherers, Oil on canvas, 481x993 mm, Australian Collection, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Image / Table / Artwork

Original Artwork - Viewed In-situ

In-text reference

When referring to an original artwork in your text, give the name of the artist, the title of the work (in italics) and the year of creation.

Is Damien Hirst's painting Veil of love's secrets (2017) reminiscent of Aboriginal artist Emily Kame Kngwarreye's works?

Reference list entry

For the reference list:

Hirst, D 2017, Veil of love's secrets, Oil on canvas, 144×108 inches, Gagosian Gallery, New York.

Where an artwork was exhibited as part of a temporary installation:

  • Add the words "Exhibited at: [Name of exhibition]" following the Description of medium and dimensions (if supplied), and before the name of the gallery.
  • Give the dates of the exhibition after the city.
  • Ektoras, M 2014, Wishing well, Mono-print: Acrylic on rice paper, Exhibited at: Light & Shade exhibition, Beth Hulme Gallery & Studio, Melbourne, 15 May - 6 Jun 2015.

    Image / Table / Artwork

    Table or figure from a book

    When referring to a table or figure in a published book, be sure to provide the relevant table or figure number as part of your in-text reference. Provide the details of the book from which the table/figure was retrieved in your Reference List.

    In-text reference

    The table or figure number is given following the year of publication, and before the page number. The abbreviation Fig. or Figs can be used for figures, the word Table(s) should be given in full.

    Look at the table 'Density functions of the estimator of the location parameter μ depending on the hypothesis values μ = 0 and μ = 2, respectively' (Rasch & Schott 2018, Fig. 3.1, p. 81)...

    Reference list entry

    For the reference list:

    Rasch, D, & Schott, D 2018, Mathematical statistics, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.

    Image / Table / Artwork

    Table or figure from an online source

    When referring to a table or figure sourced online, be sure to provide the relevant table or figure number as part of your in-text reference. Provide the details of the webpage or document from which the table/figure was retrieved in your Reference List.

    In-text reference

    The table or figure number is given following the year of publication, and before the page number. The abbreviation Fig. or Figs can be used for figures, the word Table(s) should be given in full.

    As the figures for 2016–17 show (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017, Table 3.6, p. 56)…

    Reference list entry

    For the reference list:

    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2017, Admitted patient care 2016–17 Australian hospital statistics, Health Services series no.84, AIHW, Canberra, viewed 24 May 2018, <https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/acee86da-d98e-4286-85a4-52840836706f/aihw-hse-201.pdf.aspx?inline=true>.

    Other sources

    Generally, conference papers are published within conference proceedings, either online or in print. In most cases, a conference paper (rather than the conference proceedings) will be used as a reference.

    As details will vary for conference papers, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

    Conference paper from a webpage

    A conference paper from a webpage will generally be sourced from the conference's website or the website of the organisation hosting the conference.

    Direct quote

    A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

    If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number or a section heading. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para. If it will assist the reader, both section and paragraph details can be given.

    'If feedback processes are to move towards a model where student learning is seen as the primary outcome, then a substantial shift in practices needs to occur' (Winstone & Boud 2017, Findings section, para. 2).

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

    Winstone and Boud (2017) note that staff in both the UK and Australia saw feedback as more than mere input, but rather instrumental in helping their students identify gaps in knowledge.

    Reference list entry

    In the reference list:

    Winstone, N & Boud, D 2017, ‘Supporting students’ engagement with feedback: the adoption of student-focused feedback practices in the UK and Australia’, Annual Conference of the Society for Research into Higher Education (SRHE), Newport, South Wales, 6-8 December 2017, viewed 22 May 2018, <https://www.srhe.ac.uk/conference2017/abstracts/0074.pdf>.

    Conference paper from a Library database

    A conference paper retrieved from a Victoria University Library database can be referenced as though it were the print publication. Provide:

    Hay, B 2016, ‘Drone tourism: a study of the current and potential use of drones in hospitality and tourism’, CAUTHE 2016: the changing landscape of tourism and hospitality: the impact of emerging markets and emerging destinations, Blue Mountains, Sydney, 8-11 February, 2016, pp. 49-68.

    For conference papers sourced from printed conference proceedings, use the guidelines for a chapter from an edited book.

    Other sources

    Online dataset

    As details will vary for datasets, try to extract as much information as you can about authorship and publication information etc.

    If available, include a reference point (for example: figure number or table number) in the in-text reference for the dataset. The word figure can be abbreviated to fig.

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the material from the dataset in your own words.

    ...these figures may indicate something important about this environment (Fluker 2017).

    Reference list entry

    In the reference list:

    Fluker, M 2017, Fluker posts: community based environmental monitoring, electronic dataset, Fluker Post Research Project, viewed 12 June 2018, <http://www.flukerpost.com>.

    Other sources

    Materials from your course

    Materials from your course may include lecture/session notes, PowerPoint slides or presentations.

    Direct quote

    A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

    If no page number is available, include the location of the quote using a paragraph number, section heading or slide number. The word paragraph can be abbreviated to para.

    ‘Overspecialisation can result in human diseconomies from boredom, fatigue, stress, poor quality, increased absenteeism, and higher turnover’ (Naughton 2018, p. 1).

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

    Naughton (2018) discusses in this seminar some of the unseen pitfalls of overspecialisation in a workforce.

    Reference list entry

    Lecture notes obtained from an online source (such as VU Collaborate) do not require the inclusion of a viewed date or URL address.

    Lecture notes obtained from an online source outside of VU Collaborate should contain this additional retrieval information following the details of presentation delivery.

    In the reference list:

    Naughton, S 2018, Seminar 7: Transforming organisations: strategy, structure & design, lecture notes, Organisation Change Management BMO6624, Victoria University, delivered 21 May 2018.

    Other sources

    Thesis viewed online

    Direct quote

    A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

    Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

    Kashuk (2017, p. 24) notes that our 'understanding of motor control processes has evolved substantially with the recent innovations in neuroimaging techniques and computational modelling'.

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

    The research conducted by Kashuk (2017) examines ... .

    Reference list entry

    In the reference list:

    Kashuk, S 2017, Investigation of MRI brain changes in developmental coordination disorder and Friedreich's ataxia, PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne, viewed 22 May 2018, <http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/33211>.

    Print thesis

    In the reference list provide:

    Kyei-Nimakoh, M 2017, 'Management and referral of obstetric complications: a study in the upper east region of Ghana', PhD thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne.

    Other sources

    Case Study

    Direct quote

    A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

    Put direct quotes between single inverted commas (quotation marks), and add a page number.

    Business Queensland (2016, para. 7) notes that 'three significant infrastructure projects are currently underway in Queensland to support the ongoing growth of the cruise market'.

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words.

    This case study from Business Queensland (2016) is focussed on ...

    Reference list entry

    In the reference list:

    Business Queensland 2016, Coastal Cruises Mooloolaba, case study, viewed 14 February 2017, <http://www.business.qld.gov.au/starting-business/advice-support/support/case-studies/coastal-cruises>.

    Referencing for students: APA style

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Introduction to the APA 7th ed. referencing style

    Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

    APA 7th is an author-date referencing style. You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

    APA 7th style requires all references in a document to be cited in-text, and that all in-text references are compiled in a reference list at the end of the document. In-text citations appear within the body of the document and include details such as author(s) family name, year of publication, and page number(s) (if applicable). The reference list must provide full details of all in-text references, and be arranged alphabetically by surname of author(s).

    Additional resources

    VU APA referencing guide Opens in new window - APA 7th Library Guide

    VU Library Referencing Guides Opens in new window - a list of style guides used at VU

    Using APA 7th ed.

    General rules for in-text citations

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are summarising the words or expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing you must acknowledge the original source in the text of your writing. Include the author's surname and year of publication in round brackets, or if including the author(s) name anywhere in the sentence, place the year of publication in round brackets directly following the author's name.

    Note: When paraphrasing there is more than one way to place the citation within your text (see below).

    Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

    Although APA 7th does not require page numbers when paraphrasing another's work, you may choose to include page numbers particularly when dealing with a lengthy or complex document.

    A number of holistic practices and dispositions can be applied when training or coaching athletes to increase the likelihood of athletes getting into 'the Zone' (Leskowitz, 2017, p. 324).

    Direct quotes

    Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks, and add a page number following the quote. Do NOT overuse direct quotes.

    Webber (2018) concludes that "addressing the issue of school dropout not only affects the education system, but may also serve as a prevention effort for the welfare, mental health, and corrections systems" (p. 82).

    OR

    "Addressing the issue of school dropout not only affects the education system, but may also serve as a prevention effort for the welfare, mental health, and corrections systems" (Webber, 2018, p. 82).

    If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

    "As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

    Note: Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form - without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new, indented line, and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details such as author(s), year and page number(s) in brackets.

    Others have contradicted this view, suggesting:

    These overload issues can reach across the lifespan and affect individuals in many ways. As related issues continue to emerge, counselors will need to be aware of potential mental health problems stemming from technology overload and continue to research and develop the skills needed for effective interventions. In the digital age, these capabilities will be crucial in helping clients regain and maintain a healthy balance of life, work, and technology. (Scott et al., 2017, p. 605)

    Placing in-text citations in your text

    There is more than one way to place the citation within your text.

    Citation at the beginning

    Leskowitz (2017) describes the transcendent states that athletes experience...

    Citation in the middle

    . . . sport viewed as a spiritual path (Leskowitz, 2017), and one that is frequently followed in the west.

    Citation at the end

    . . . athletes using techniques adapted from holistic and complementary medicine (Leskowitz, 2017).

    Note: Different referencing methods may highlight the importance of the author, or give more weighting to the information.

    Author-prominent citations

    In his research, Leskowitz (2017) explores mindfulness, biofeedback...

    Information-prominent citations

    . . . applying up-to-the-minute advances in holistic and complementary medicine (Leskowitz, 2017).

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Multiple references in same parentheses

    In your writing list all citations alphabetically, with a semi-colon to separate them.

    … complementary therapies and the complexities of critical care (Lindquist et al., 2018; Morton & Fontaine, 2018).

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Multiple works by same author in same year

    When an author has published more than one cited work in the same year, distinguish each work by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

    Paraphrasing in-text

    According to Dean (2017a), it was found that …

    It is suggested that … (Dean, 2017b).

    Reference list

    Distinguish works by the same author in the same year by the suffixes a, b, c, etc. after the year.

    References by the same author with the same publication year are arranged alphabetically by the title (excluding A or The).

    Dean, E. (2017a). Practice nursing: An action plan for a disparate workforce. Nursing Standard, 32(3), 25-26. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.32.3.25.s24

    Dean, E. (2017b). Top nursing universities fall short in new ratings. Nursing Standard, 31(44), 9. https://doi.org/10.7748/ns.31.44.9.s8

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Secondary citation

    APA 7th discourages the use of secondary sources unless the original work is unavailable. If you read an article or book which references some information that you also want to reference and you have been unable to locate the original source, cite the source you have read in the reference list. In your text acknowledge the original source and provide a citation for the source where you found the information. For example:

    Sue reads an article by Chris Brown in the Journal of Library Administration in which he cites or refers to statements made by Ulrich Boser in his 2017 book Learn Better. Sue wants to refer to Boser's statement in her assignment.

    Sue would acknowledge Boser in her text but her reference is to the source where she saw the information. Sue might write as her in-text reference:

    … (Boser, 2017, as cited in Brown, 2018)

    OR

    Boser (2017, as cited in Brown, 2018) states …

    In her reference list Sue would write a reference for Brown's article because that's where she sourced the information. The entry in her reference list would be:

    Brown, C. (2018). Creating better learners through learning science: A sample of methods. Journal of Library Administration, 58(4), 375-381. https://doi.org/10.1080/01930826.2018.1448652

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Personal communication

    Information obtained from personal communication does NOT need to be included in the reference list, and should only be referenced in-text.

    Use your judgment in citing personal communications. Remember that what you cite should have scholarly relevance.

    Examples of personal communication include:

    When citing in-text, include the author's first name initial(s) followed by their surname, and a precise date of when the communication took place.

    The Vice Chancellor's statement was confirmed during a phone interview (S. Richards, personal communication, August 14, 2018).

    Ben Cork expressed sincere regret in his letter (personal communication, April 1, 2018) …

    Using APA 7th ed.

    General rules for the reference list

    Digital object identifier (DOI)

    When citing journal articles, books, reports, etc., you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated, regardless of whether you used a print or electronic resource. A DOI is a unique, permanent identification number that will take you straight to a document no matter where it is located on the Internet.

    The required DOI format should appear in your reference list as:

    https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

    It's also acceptable to use the older 'http' prefix:

    http://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

    If a DOI is not presented as above, you will need to adapt it to this format and ensure the link works.

    If no DOI is assigned, and the material was retrieved from a Library database; reference it as though it were the print version.

    If no DOI is assigned, and the material was retrieved from the web; provide a direct URL to the material.

    Note: There is no full stop after the URL or a DOI.

    Using APA 7th ed.

    Example of a reference list

    References

    Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Childhood education and care (No. 4402.0). https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4402.0Main+Features1June%202017?OpenDocument

    Egan, D. (Writer), & Weyr, T. N. (Director). (2019, October 14). Take my hand (Season 3, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), The good doctor. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

    Fletcher, D. P. (2018). Disrupters: Success strategies from women who break the mold. Entrepreneur Press.

    Haile, L., Gallagher, M., & Robertson, R. J. (2015). Perceived exertion laboratory manual: From standard practice to contemporary application. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1917-8

    Hernández-Romero, L. (2017). Re-evaluating creativity: The individual, society, and education. Palgrave Macmillan.

    Marion, T., Reese, V., & Wagner, R. F. (2018). Dermatologic features in good film characters who turn evil: The transformation. Dermatology Online Journal, 24(9), Article 4. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1666h4z5

    Power, J. (2011). Movement, knowledge, emotion: Gay activism and HIV/AIDS in Australia. ANU Press. https://www.doabooks.org/doab?func=search&query=rid:15033

    Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162

    Book

    Book from a library database: no DOI

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    Studies indicate that . . . (Fletcher, 2018).

    Fletcher (2018) states that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

    "Experience is the only perceived indicator of capability" (Fletcher, 2018, p. 107).

    Fletcher (2018) notes that "experience is the only perceived indicator of capability" (p. 107).

    Reference list

    Fletcher, D. P. (2018). Disrupters: Success strategies from women who break the mold. Entrepreneur Press.

    Book

    Book from the web: no DOI

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    Studies indicate that . . . (Power, 2011).

    Power (2011) states that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

    In the late 1980's "medical authorities and many individual doctors strongly advocated the HIV test" (Power, 2011, p. 84).

    Power (2011) notes that "medical authorities and many individual doctors strongly advocated the HIV test" (p. 84).

    Reference list

    Power, J. (2011). Movement, knowledge, emotion: Gay activism and HIV/AIDS in Australia. ANU Press. https://www.doabooks.org/doab?func=search&query=rid:15033

    Book

    Two authors: no DOI

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author surnames only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

    According to Moran and Toner (2017)...

    ...this is evident (Moran & Toner, 2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

    "Direct team-building techniques are increasingly evident in sport - even in games which are regarded as quintessentially individual activities such as golf" (Moran & Toner, 2017, p. 348).

    Reference list

    List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

    Moran, A., & Toner, J. (2017). A critical introduction to sport psychology (3rd ed.). Routledge.

    Book

    Three to twenty authors: with DOI

    Paraphrasing in-text

    Where there are 3 or more authors cite only the first author's surname followed by et al.

    . . . changes the signficance of affective responses to exercise (Haile et al., 2015).

    According to Haile et al. (2015) the response ...

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

    Haile et al. (2015) note that interval training involves "performing for a comparatively shorter time period during each exercise session" (p.135).

    Reference list

    List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last author.

    Haile, L., Gallagher, M., & Robertson, R. J. (2015). Perceived exertion laboratory manual: From standard practice to contemporary application. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-1917-8

    Book

    Book chapter or Parts of a book

    An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    Big data is defined as any data that requires specialised computing techniques and software (Shah, 2018).

    Shah (2018) advocates …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

    Shah (2018) advocates "the use of analytics to make informed decisions at the executive leadership level" (p. 38).

    Reference list

    Include all editor(s) initials then surnames following the word, In (if there is a large editorial board use et al. after the first editor's surname).

    Also, enclose in brackets the edition number (if applicable), and include the page numbers of the chapter directly after the title.

    Shah, T. H. (2018). Big data analytics in higher education. In S. M. Perry (Ed.), Maximizing social science research through publicly accessible data sets (pp. 38-61). IGI Global. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-3616-1

    Book chapter in an authored book

    If the book is an authored (NOT edited) work, then reference it as a whole work, NOT by the book chapter.

    For examples refer to the following relevant sections:

    Journal article

    Journal article with single author

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author's surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author's surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname.

    Research shows that ... (Ruxton, 2016).

    Ruxton (2016) concludes that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

    "Black tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world after water" (Ruxton, 2016, p. 34).

    Reference list

    When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the journal title and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if available).

    Ruxton, C. (2016). Tea: Hydration and other health benefits. Primary Health Care, 26(8), 34-42. https://doi.org/10.7748/phc.2016.e1162

    Journal article

    Journal article with two authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    The ampersand symbol & is used between the author surnames only when they appear in brackets.

    … connection and optimism (Aspy & Proeve, 2017), but others contend …

    Aspy and Proeve (2017) have found …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

    A study conducted by Aspy and Proeve (2017) suggests that "social connectedness is more strongly related to well-being than nature connectedness" (p. 113).

    Reference list

    List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

    When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if available).

    Aspy, D. J., & Proeve, M. (2017). Mindfulness and loving-kindness meditation: Effects on connectedness to humanity and to the natural world. Psychological Reports, 120(1), 102-117. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033294116685867

    Journal article

    Journal article with three to twenty authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    Cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. and the year.

    . . . nurses must care as well as be competent (Geraghty et al., 2016).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

    Geraghty et al. (2016) suggest that "education regarding compassion should be considered for inclusion in curricula for nursing and midwifery students before qualification, and on an annual compulsory education basis after qualification" (p. 838).

    Reference list

    List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last author.

    When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if available).

    Geraghty, S., Lauva, M., & Oliver, K. (2016). Reconstructing compassion: Should it be taught as part of the curriculum? British Journal of Nursing, 25(15), 836-839. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2016.25.15.836

    Journal article

    Journal article with twenty-one more authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    Use only the first listed surname followed by et al. and year of publication.

    Khan et al. (2017) comment that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

    Khan et al. (2019) used criteria which included "reduced or lost sense of smell" (p. 344).

    Reference list

    Provide the names of the first 19 authors, insert an ellipsis [...] (but no ampersand [&]), then add the final author's name.

    When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if available).

    Khan, A., Huynh, T. M. T., Vandeplas, G., Joish, V. N., Mannent, L. P., Tomassen P., van Zele, T., Cardell, L. O., Arebro, J., Olze, H., Forster-Ruhrmann, U., Kowalski, M. L., Olszewska-Ziaber, A., Fokkens, W., van Drunen, C., Mullol, J., Alobid, I., Hellings, P. W., Hox, V., … Bachert, C. (2019). The GALEN rhinosinusitis cohort: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects health-related quality of life. Rhinology, 57(5), 343-351. https://doi.org/10.4193/Rhin19.158

    Journal article

    Journal article with eight or more authors

    Journal article

    Journal article without DOI

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author surname(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    Marion et al. (2018) explore whether evil characters in film share ...

    ... including stereotypical depictions of evil characters in film (Marion et al., 2018).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

    "Our relationship with ourselves is essential to how we each show up professionally" (Nairne & Wilkinson, 2018, p. 106).

    Reference list

    If citing a journal article without a DOI from a library database use the following format: author(s), year of publication in brackets, title of article, title of journal and volume number in italics issue number, and page number(s) (if available).

    Nairne, D. C., & Wilkinson, H. (2018). What's love got to do with it? Vermont Connection, 39(1), 106-112.

    If citing an online journal article without a DOI use the following format: author(s), year of publication in brackets, title of article, title of journal and volume number in italics issue number, page number(s) or article number, and direct URL for the article.

    Marion, T., Reese, V., & Wagner, R. F. (2018). Dermatologic features in good film characters who turn evil: The transformation. Dermatology Online Journal, 24(9), Article 4. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/1666h4z5

    Journal article

    Online Journal article: No page numbers

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author surname(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    ... in all outcomes (Christensen et al., 2019).

    Christensen et al. (2019) examine ...

    Direct quote in-text

    For direct quotes of online material without pagination, name the sections and paragraph number

    The authors' "objective was to identify control journals that did not require data posting" (Christensen et al., 2019, Broad Analysis section, para. 4).

    Reference list

    If there is no page numbers, omit this information from the reference. For journal issues with article numbers (rather than consecutive pagination) replace page numbers with the word 'Article' followed by the article number or eLocator.

    Italicise the journal title and volume number.

    For online journal articles, include the digital object identifier (DOI) if available. Otherwise, provide the direct URL of the article.

    Christensen, G., Dafoe, A., Miguel, E., Moore, D. A., & Rose, A. K. (2019). A study of the impact of data sharing on article citations using journal policies as a natural experiment. PLoS ONE, 14(2), Article e0225883. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0225883

    Newspaper article

    Newspaper article from a library database

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    … work integrated learning programs (Woodman, 2018).

    Woodman (2018) highlights the need …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

    Woodman (2018) states that "a lack of the right connections, cultural insider knowledge and parents who can help pay the bills can make it impossible to access useful internships" (p. 29).

    Reference list

    Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

    Include the day, month and year of publication.

    Woodman, D. (2018, May 16). Internships have much to offer but provisions are necessary to ensure the young truly benefit. The Australian, 29.

    Newspaper article

    Newspaper article, online

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    ...brunette not blonde (Spring & Earl, 2018).

    Spring and Earl (2018) discuss diversity . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

    The article stated, "there's been a major push for more diversity in the fashion industry recently" (Spring & Earl, 2018, para. 6).

    Reference list

    Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

    Include the day, month and year of publication.

    Provide the direct URL for the article.

    If an article already contains punctuation, such as the single quotes around 'Just not blond' as in the example below, retain these in your reference.

    Spring, A. & Earl, C. (2018, May 22). 'Just not blond': How the diversity push is failing Australian fashion. The Guardian: Australia Edition. https://www.theguardian.com/fashion/2018/may/22/just-not-blonde-how-the-diversity-push-is-failing-australian-fashion

    Newspaper article

    Newspaper article, print

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

    It is important that . . . (Tillett, 2018).

    Tillett (2018) mentions that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

    Tillett (2018) warns of a "fiscal tsunami of Baby Boomers reaching retirement age" (p. 5).

    Reference list

    Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

    Include the year, month and date of publication.

    If an article appears on discontinuous pages, give all page numbers, and separate the numbers with a comma.

    Tillett, A. (2018, May 9). Australians encouraged to age at home. The Australian Financial Review, 5.

    Newspaper article

    Newspaper article, no author

    Paraphrasing in-text

    If no author has been identified, use a shortened title (or full title if it is short) in Headline Case enclosed in double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

    . . . leading exponent of behavioural economics ("Economics Nudging," 2017).

    As discussed in "Economics Nudging" (2017), governments . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

    "… governments have been using psychological 'nudges' to encourage people to pay their taxes, or exercise more" ("Economics Nudging," 2017, p. 33).

    Reference list

    Place the title of the article in the author position.

    Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.

    Include the year, month and date of publication.

    Economics nudging people away from war. (2017, December 16). The Age, 33.

    Social Media

    Tweet

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author's name and year of publication in brackets.

    Highlighting the importance of speech pathology and the basic human right to communication (Speech Pathology Aus, 2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

    Provide sufficient information in your reference to ensure your reader can find the information being quoted. The quote may come from the tweet itself, or from an attachment in the tweet, as in the below example.

    Speech Pathology Aus (2017) tweeted an infographic noting that it can be helpful to "rephrase your question into simple language, give extra time or use pictures" (para. 1).

    Reference list

    List both the author's name and their Twitter handle in [square brackets].

    Provide the exact date of the tweet in the format (Year, Month Date).

    Use the content of the tweet up to the first 20 words as the title, in italics.

    Include a description in [square brackets] of any attached media, if relevant, as well as the description of format [Tweet].

    Speech Pathology Aus [@SpeechPathAus]. (2017, August 20). Communication is a human right, yet barriers to communication accessibility still exist. How can you help? #SPweek goo.gl/xmWQNL [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SpeechPathAus/status/899167896164864001

    Social Media

    Facebook Post

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

    Providing support and information during trauma (Australian Psychological Society, 2020).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

    Provide sufficient information in your reference to ensure your reader can find the information being quoted. Use the abbreviation 'para.' for paragraph.

    In a timely Facebook post the Australian Psychological Society (2020) advised parents of affected children to "look for changes in behaviour that suggest they are unsettled or distressed" (para. 1).

    Reference list

    If the real name of the author is known, use that in preference to a user name or screen name.

    Provide the exact date of the Facebook post in the format (Year, Month Date).

    Use the content of the Facebook post up to the first 20 words as the title, in italics.

    Include a description in [square brackets] of any attached media, if relevant. If Facebook post is a status update, include the description [Status update].

    Australian Psychological Society. (2020, January 9). Children cope with trauma in different ways. Look for changes in behaviour that suggest they are unsettled or distressed [Image with link attached]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/pg/AustralianPsychologicalSociety/posts/?ref=page_internal

    Social Media

    Instagram Photo or Video

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When referencing an Instagram photo or video name the author/creator and the year.

    This infographic is a timely reminder from Cancer Council Australia (2019) on how to stay up to date with UV levels.

    Direct quote in-text

    It is possible to quote directly from an Instagram video. Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the time mark of the quoted information, e.g. 2:12 (i.e. at the 2 minute, 12 second mark).

    Reference list

    List both the author's name and their Instagram user name in [square brackets].

    Provide the exact date of the photo/video in the format (Year, Month Date).

    Use the content of Instagram photo/video's caption up to the first 20 words as the title, in italics. If the photo/video does not have a title provide a description of the audiovisuals in [square brackets], (no italics).

    Include a description in [square brackets] of format, e.g. [Photographs], [Infographic] or [Video].

    Cancer Council Australia [@cancercouncil]. (2019, December 17). Find your local UV levels [Infographic]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/B6JpDqBlVYo/?utm_source=ig_web_copy_link

    Audiovisual Works

    Film

    Paraphrasing in-text

    The film's director is the author.

    When paraphrasing, include the director's name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the director's surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname.

    … explores what it means to be highly sensitive (Harper, 2015).

    Harper (2015) interviews a variety of highly sensitive …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

    Somewhat like intuition "we can know something without knowing how we know it" (Harper, 2015, 18:36).

    Reference list

    Include details of the director/s in the author position, followed by their contribution in (round brackets), e.g. (Director).

    Italicise the film title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Film].

    Include the production company as the 'publisher'.

    Harper, W. (Director). Sensitive: The untold story [Film]. Global Touch Group.

    Audiovisual Works

    TV Episode from a Series

    Paraphrasing in-text

    The writer/s and director of the episode are the authors.

    When paraphrasing, include writer and director's surnames and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the writer and director's surnames in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surnames.

    … both professionally and emotionally (Egan & Weyr, 2019).

    Egan and Weyr (2019) portray Dr Shaun Murphy …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

    Carly says to Shaun "I thought I was ready for us to be together, but my body had a different response" (Egan & Weyr, 2019, 32:19).

    Reference list

    Include details of the episode writer/s and director in the author position.

    The season and episode number in (round brackets) follow the episode title, e.g. (Season 3, Episode 4). Followed by the format in [square brackets], e.g. [TV series episode].

    Include the details of the executive producer, series title (in italics) and production company as the publisher.

    Egan, D. (Writer), & Weyr, T. N. (Director). (2019, October 14). Take my hand (Season 3, Episode 4) [TV series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer) The good doctor. ABC Studios; Sony Pictures Television.

    Audiovisual works

    Podcast episode

    Paraphrasing in-text

    The host(s) of the podcast episode is the author.

    When paraphrasing, include the host(s) name and year of publication in brackets.

    …plants sense without a brain (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2018).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

    "With plants, they may have this intelligence, maybe we're just not smart enough yet to figure it out" (Abumrad & Krulwich, 2018, 31.18).

    Reference list

    Include the episode title (no italics or quotation marks) and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Audio podcast episode].

    Provide the direct URL to the podcast episode.

    Abumrad, J., & Krulwich, R. (Hosts). (2018, February 14). Smarty plants [Audio podcast episode]. In Radiolab. WNYC. https://www.wnycstudios.org/podcasts/radiolab/articles/smarty-plants

    Audiovisual works

    YouTube video

    Paraphrasing in-text

    The person, or group, responsible for uploading the video to YouTube is credited as the author.

    When paraphrasing, include the uploader's name and year of publication in brackets.

    …competing stresses of being a nursing student doing placements (Rojek, 2018).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

    It is helpful to "understand that when the stress comes and you have to go to the source and understand why it's happening" (Rojek, 2018, 08:03).

    Reference list

    Include the name of the person or group responsible for uploading the YouTube video in the author position. Use the real name, if known, followed by the username in [square brackets].

    Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video].

    The Publisher of the video will be YouTube.

    Provide the exact URL for the video.

    Rojek, H. G. [Holley Gabrielle]. (2018, February 19). Stress and anxiety in nursing school: How to be in control [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/GqmX2JqjYMw

    Image from a library database

    Image from a library database

    Paraphrasing in-text

    Content to be added

    Audiovisual works

    Images: Creative Commons

    In-text citation

    The term 'Figure' refers to ALL images you may use in your work, including photographs, maps and drawings, as well as charts and graphs.

    Each figure presented in your work is numbered in order.

    Every figure included in your work must be referred to within the written body of your paper.

    In your text refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as "the Figure above/below", or "the Figure on page 17".

    When reproducing figures in your work, the full citation is presented directly below the figure in a Note.

    Figure layout

    A figure reproduced from a Creative Commons source will include a Figure number and brief descriptive title directly above the reproduced figure and a double-spaced Note with the following elements directly below the figure:

    Note. From Dementia Alzheimer's Dependent Forget Forgetfulness, by G. Altmann, n.d., Pixabay (https://pixabay.com/en/dementia-alzheimer-s-dependent-3051832). CC0 1.0.

    Reference list

    The figure must also appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA 7th style.

    Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Photograph].

    Altmann, G. (n.d.). Dementia Alzheimer's dependent forget forgetfulness [Photograph]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/en/dementia-alzheimer-s-dependent-3051832

    Webpages

    Webpage

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

    ...family experience with psychosis (Johnson, 2018).

    Direct quote in-text

    Many webpages do not provide page numbers, use the name of the section and/or the paragraph number as part of the in-text citation.

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number using the abbreviation 'para.'.

    Talking from her experience Johnson (2018, para. 15) asserts that "we must continue to replace the old status quo with high quality early intervention services".

    Reference list

    For a webpage, include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

    Always provide the most specific date available, e.g. (Year, Month Date). If no year/date is stated then use n.d. for no date.

    Note that the title of the webpage should be italicized.

    Provide the name of the website as the source of the webpage.

    Include the direct URL for the webpage.

    Where a title already contains punctuation, such as the double quotes in the example below, retain these in your reference.

    Johnson, A. (2018, May 24). "It doesn't need to be this way": The promise of specialised early intervention in psychosis services. IEPA. https://iepa.org.au/network-news/it-doesnt-need-to-be-this-way-the-promise-of-specialised-early-intervention-in-psychosis-services

    Webpages

    Web document

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include either the author/company/organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

    Exercise may be the last thing you feel like doing, but it can help (Black Dog Institute, 2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and/or the paragraph number as part of the in-text citation if quoting from a webpage document that does not have page numbers.

    According to the Black Dog Institute (2017, para. 1) "feeling tired and less motivated are two very common symptoms of depression".

    Reference list

    For a webpage document reference, include author(s) if applicable, or if no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name, followed by the year in brackets.

    If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.

    Note that the title of the webpage should be italicized.

    Provide the name of the website as the source of the webpage, unless it is the same as the author (as in this example) in which case omit the site name.

    Include the direct URL for the webpage document.

    Black Dog Institute. (2017). Managing depression with exercise. https://www.blackdoginstitute.org.au/docs/default-source/factsheets/managingdepressionwithexercise.pdf?sfvrsn=16

    Webpages

    Blog post

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    Note if the author's screen name or username does not have any capitals, retain it exactly as found in the in-text citation.

    …attempts to dissuade inadvertently entrench a mistaken belief (Stafford, 2018).

    …withdrawal from antipsychotic medications (markps2, 2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

    "The backfire effect is when correcting misinformation hardens, rather than corrects, someone's mistaken belief" (Stafford, 2018, para. 1).

    Reference list

    Provide the exact date in brackets, and do NOT italicise the title of the blog post.

    Include the title of the blog (in italics) as the source of the post and provide the exact URL of the blog post.

    For comments on blog posts include up to the first 20 words of the comment as the title (no italics), retaining punctation. Following the title, in square brackets write [Comment on the article "Title of the article"].

    Note if the author's screen name does not have any capitals, retain it exactly as found.

    markps2. (2017, May 31). For researchers to study… when people stop taking "Antipsychotics also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers" they can have withdrawal [Comment on the article "What triggers that feeling of being watched?"]. Mind Hacks. https://mindhacks.com/2017/05/26/what-triggers-that-feeling-of-being-watched/#comments

    Stafford, T. (2018, January 3). The backfire effect is elusive. Mind Hacks. https://mindhacks.com/2018/01/03/the-backfire-effect-is-elusive/

    Other sources

    Web document: Government department as author

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include government department name and year of publication in brackets.

    If you want to cite from the web document more than once, in the first citation provide the full name of the government department. In subsequent citations, use the abbreviated title.

    ...listen to women and girls from these communities (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet [PM&C], 2017).

    According to the PM&C (2017) report...

    Direct quote in-text

    Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.

    If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and/or the paragraph number as part of the in-text citation.

    "...aspirations and perspectives on the empowerment of Indigenous women" (Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet [PM&C], 2017, para. 8).

    Reference list

    Include the author(s) if stated; otherwise use the government department name, followed by the year of publication in brackets.

    If the document is a report, the title is italicised and, if there is a report number, place it in brackets immediately after the title.

    Include a retrieval statement at the end of the reference.

    Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. (2017). Understanding the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women and girls: A joint project with the Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved from https://pmc.gov.au/sites/default/files/publications/factsheet-supporting-indigenous-women-girls.pdf

    Other sources

    Conference proceedings

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets.

    ...skills in clinical reasoning are vital (Blakey et al., 2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the conference proceeding.

    "Centuries of co-existence with ecosystems has resulted in some of the richest collective memories on patterns and behavior of biological resources and environmental changes" (Blakey et al., 2017, p. 26).

    Reference list

    For conference papers sourced from a conference proceeding (compilation of published conference papers), use the same format for a book chapter e.g. author(s), year of publication, title of conference paper, editor(s), title of conference proceeding in italics, page number(s), publisher and DOI if available.

    Blakey, N., Guinea, S., & Saghafi, F. (2017). Transforming undergraduate nursing curriculum by aligning models of clinical reasoning through simulation. In R. Walker & S. Bedford (Eds.), Research and Development in Higher Education: Vol. 40. Curriculum Transformation (pp. 25-37). Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia. http://www.herdsa.org.au/research-and-development-higher-education-vol-40-25

    Other sources

    Thesis

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the author(s) surname and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) surname in the body of the text, insert the year of publication in brackets immediately after the surname(s).

    … research is required to fill in gaps in our knowledge (Smith, 2018).

    Smith (2018) claims that …

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the thesis.

    According to Mosek (2017) "flow was considered a highly functional state" (p. 6).

    Reference list

    For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in square brackets including the university, and archive name.

    Also include the DOI or URL.

    Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/

    For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, publication or order number in brackets, type of work in square brackets including the university, and database name.

    Smith, G. (2018). Examining the impact of mindset and personality on athletes' attitudes towards sports psychology consultants (Publication No. 10746190) [Doctoral dissertation, Drake University]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

    Other sources

    Standards

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the organisation name and year of publication in brackets.

    Good interior lighting is required for both patients and staff...(Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand, 2018).

    Reference list

    Italicise the standard title and shorten the URL to the homepage.

    Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). https://www.saiglobal.com/

    Other sources

    Act of Parliament

    Paraphrasing in-text

    Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Also include, the section number s. (if applicable).

    It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.

    According to s. 60.1 of the Foreign Influence Transparency Scheme Act 2018 (Cth). . .

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

    "A transparency notice, or a variation or revocation of a transparency notice, is not a legislative instrument" (Foreign Influence Transparency Scheme Act 2018 (Cth), s. 14F).

    Reference list

    The title of the legislation and year are to be italicised.

    Include the jurisdiction of the legislation in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation.

    If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.

    The reference should cite the print source unless an electronic source is designated as the official version.

    Where an electronic source is designated as the official version, add the direct URL.

    Foreign Influence Transparency Scheme Act 2018 (Cth) s. 60.1 (Austl.).

    Other sources

    Legal cases

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the name of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets.

    ...for example Director of Public Prosecutions v Stanojlovic and Another (2017).

    Direct quote in-text

    Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the name of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

    "An honest and reasonable, but mistaken, belief that a P plate was properly displayed was not relevant to proof of the offence created by reg 55(1) of the Road Safety (Drivers) Regulations 2009" (Director of Public Prosecutions v Stanojlovic and Another, 2017, Held section, para. 1).

    Reference list

    For court decisions the elements to include are: name of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, abbreviated title of law report, and starting page number.

    If the case is obtained online from a library database, reference it as the print version. If the case is obtained online from the web, provide the direct URL following the country.

    Director of Public Prosecutions v Stanojlovic and Another (2017) 53 VR 90 (Austl.).

    Referencing for students: AGLC3 style

    General Rules

    Introduction to the AGLC4 referencing style

    Important: This is a guide only. Always:

    AGLC is a footnote referencing style. You must follow this style when referencing sources.

    Use of the instert footnote function in Word is recommended.

    Additional resources

    Download the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) 4th ed, 2018 Opens in new window

    See also the Victoria University Library AGLC4 Referencing Style Guide Opens in new window

    Referencing for students: AGLC3 style

    General Rules

    General Format of Footnotes

    In-text example

    For reasons of comity, the anti-suit injunction is not awarded lightly.4

    Footnote example

    4 CSR Ltd v Cigna Insurance Australia Ltd (1997) 189 CLR 345, 396.

    Pinpoint references

    A pinpoint reference directs the reader to something in the cited source.

    See Rule 3.1.4 of the AGLC4 Opens in new window for a full list of abbreviations used in pinpoint references for legislative materials.

    General Rules

    Sources Referring to Other Sources

    You should always consult and cite the original source. However, where it is important to show that one source is referred to in another source, you may use phrases such as quoting, quoted in, citing and cited in to join the citations.

    These clauses should be preceded by a comma.

    Examples

    Clause Meaning

    quoting

    The first-listed source quotes the second source directly.

    quoted in

    The first-listed source is quoted directly in the second source.

    citing

    The first-listed source refers to (but does not directly quote) the second source.

    cited in

    The first-listed source is referred to (but not quoted directly) in the second source.

    discussing

    The first-listed source discusses the second source.

    discussed in

    The first-listed source is discussed in the second source.

    Examples

    1 Mabo v Queensland [No 2] (1992) 175 CLR 1, 26, quoting Attorney-General (NSW) v Brown (1847) 1 Legge 312, 317-8.

    2 Lamshed v Lake (1958) 99 CLR 132, 153, cited in Bennett v Commonwealth (2007) 231 CLR 91, 106.

    3 Airlines of New South Wales Pty Ltd v New South Wales [No 2] (1965) 113 CLR 54, 113-15, discussed in Adrienne Stone, 'Comparativism in Constitutional Interpretation' [2009] New Zealand Law Review 45, 59.

    General Rules

    Subsequent References

    The first time a source is cited, it must be cited in full. However, subsequent references may use ibid or a shortened form of the citation with a cross-reference.

    Using Ibid

    Examples

    1 HLA Hart, The Concept of Law (Claredon Press, 1970) 15.

    2 Ibid.

    3 Ibid 20.

    4Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 3.

    5 Ibid s 4.

    Using a shortened form

    When citing a source that has previously been cited (other than in the immediately preceding footnote) a shortened form of the citation may be provided with a cross-reference in round brackets ( ) containing the footnote number of the full citation.

    Secondary Sources

    Examples

    1Catherine MacMillan, Mistakes in Contract Law (Hart Publishing, 2010) 38.

    ...

    4 MacMillan (n 1) 44.

    ...

    6 NC Seddon and MP Ellinghaus, Cheshire and Fifoot's Law of Contract (LexisNexis, 9th ed, 2008) 867.

    ...

    9 Seddon and Ellinghaus (n 6) 52.

    Primary Sources

    Examples

    12 Penfolds Wines Pty Ltd v Elliot (1946) 74 CLR 204 ('Penfolds Wines').

    ...

    15 Penfolds Wines (n 12) 244.

    ...

    18 Administrative Decision Judicial Act 1977 (Cth) s 2 ('ADJR Act').

    ...

    21 ADJR Act (n 18) s 5(2).

    General Rules

    Short Titles

    A short title is an abbreviated form of the title of a source. Short titles may be used for convenience and clarity. You may use short titles within the text of your assignment and within the footnotes for subsequent references.

    Note: For information about using short titles in footnotes see the section 'Subsequent References' or AGLC4 Rule 1.4.1.

    Examples

    The Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal ('VCAT') hears and decides civil and administrative cases in the State of Victoria. VCAT is less formal than a Court.

    The historical relationship between the Australian Broadcasting Corporation ('ABC') and successive governments has been complicated...While the struggle over the ABC's editorial independence characterized much of these formative tensions...

    The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat ('Ramsar Convention')3 is an international treaty aimed at the conservation of wetlands...Unlike most other global environmental conventions, the Ramsar Convention is not affiliated with the United Nations system of Multilateral Environmental Agreements.

    Newcrest Mining (WA) Ltd v Commonwealth ('Newcrest')7 concerned Commonwealth action to sterilize land effectively as national parkland. The plaintiff in Newcrest argued...

    Following these four reports the government introduced the Safety, Rehabilitation and Compensation Legislation Amendment Bill 2014 (Cth) ('SRC Bill'). The primary aim of the SRC Bill is to widen access to self-insurance....

    General Rules

    Quotations

    Direct quotes reproduce the exact words used in a source.

    Short Quotations

    Example

    Priestly JA stated that 'there is a close association of ideas between the terms unreasonableness, lack of good faith, and unconscionability'.67

    Long Quotations

    Example

    The Judge stated:

    It is the everyday experience of the courts that honest witnesses are frequently in error about the details of events. The more accounts that they are asked to give the greater is the chance that there will be discrepancies about details and even inconsistencies in the various accounts. Of course, it is legitimate to test the honesty or accuracy of a witness's evidence by analysing the discrepancies and inconsistencies in his or her accounts of an incident. In a case where accuracy of recollection is vital - such as the account of a conversation in a fraud case or the description of a person where identity is the issue...63

    General Rules

    Names

    Footnote examples

    1 RJ Ellicott, 'The Autochthonous Expedient and the Federal Court' (2008) 82(10) Australian Law Journal 700.

    2 Ralph H Folsom, Principles of European Union Law (Thomson West, 2005) 55.

    3 Sarah Joseph, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004).

    4 Cedric Ryngaert et al (eds), Judicial Decisions on the Law of International Organizations (Oxford University Press, 2016).

    5 Sir Laurence Street, 'The Court System and Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedures' (2018) 29(2) Australian Dispute Resolution Journal 85, 88.

    Bibliography examples

    Ellicott, RJ, 'The Autochthonous Expedient and the Federal Court' (2008) 82(10) Australian Law Journal 700

    Folsom, Ralph H, Principles of European Union Law (Thomson West, 2005)

    Joseph, Sarah, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004)

    Ryngaert, Cedric et al (eds), Judicial Decisions on the Law of International Organizations (Oxford University Press, 2016)

    Street, Sir Laurence, 'The Court System and Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedures' (2018) 29(2) Australian Dispute Resolution Journal 85

    General Rules

    Headings

    Headings can be used to help identify each section of your assignment or to introduce the main points made in your assignment.

    Headings should appear as follows:

    Heading Level Attributes

    I HEADING LEVEL ONE

    Upper-case Roman numeral not italicised; heading in large and small capitals and centred.

    A Heading Level Two

    Upper-case letter not italicised; heading italicised and centred.

    1 Heading Level Three

    Arabic numeral not italicised; heading italicised and left-aligned.

    (a) Heading Level Four

    Lower-case letter and heading italicised and left-aligned.

    (i) Heading Level Five

    Lower-case Roman numeral and heading italicised and left-aligned.

    Example

    II TRUSTS PRINCIPLES IN FAMILY PROPERTY CASES

    A Traditional Trusts Principles: Authority before Cummins

    In Australia, both resulting and constructive trust analyses are commonly used by courts to determine the beneficial interests of parties in family property cases. The precise factual circumstances that may determine that one type of trust will be imposed rather than the other have not been clearly articulated. As a general rule, where the focus is on the parties' direct financial contributions to the purchase price, a resulting trust analysis will follow.7 Where the focus is on the indirect and non-financial contributions of the parties, a constructive trust analysis tends to be applied.8 The following section of the article provides an outline of the traditional constructive and resulting trust principles that formed the doctrinal backdrop against which Cummins was decided. The main focus of the discussion will be on resulting trusts because, as will be shown below, the Court in Cummins restricted its reasoning to resulting trust principles, omitting any mention of the constructive trust.

    1 The Constructive Trust

    A constructive trust may be imposed where the assertion of legal title by one party amounts to an unconscionable denial of a beneficial interest to another.9

    Lisa Sarmas, 'Trusts: Third Parties and the Family Home: Six Years Since Cummins and Confusion Still Reigns' (2012) 36 Melbourne University Law Review 216, 219.

    General Rules

    Bibliography

    Example

    BIBLIOGRAPHY

    A Articles/Books/Reports

    Eastwood, Christine, Sally Kift and Rachel Grace, 'Attrition in Child Sexual Assault Cases: Why Lord Chief Justice Hale Got It Wrong' (2006) 16 Journal of Judicial Administration 18

    Foster, Michelle, International Refugee Law and Socio-Economic Rights: Refuge from Deprivation (Cambridge University Press, 2007)

    B Cases

    Lane v Morrison [2009] HCA 29

    R v Tang (2008) 237 CLR 1

    C Legislation

    Aerodome Landing Fees Act 2003 (Vic)

    Australian Constitution

    D Treaties

    Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, opened for signature 10 December 1984, 1465 UNTS 85 (entered into force 26 June 1987)

    E Other

    'Consumer Scams', Consumer Affairs Victoria (Web Page, 19 July 2019) <https://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/resources-and-tools/scams/consumer-scams>

    New South Wales, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Assembly, 15 December 1909

    Case law

    Reported decision

    Case name Year Volume Report series Starting page Pinpoint Judge(s)

    Kartinyeri v Commonwealth

    (1998)

    195

    CLR

    337,

    383

    (Gummow and Hayne JJ).

    Footnote examples

    Type Footnote example

    Individual party names

    1 Price v Underwood (2008) 39 Fam LR 614.

    Company party names

    1 Momentum Productions Pty Ltd v Lewarne (2009) 254 ALR 223.

    The Crown as the first party

    1 R v Nagy [1992] 1 VR 637, 640 (McGarvie J).

    The Crown as respondent

    1 Chamberlain v The Queen [No 2] (1984) 153 CLR 521, 529 (Gibbs CJ and Mason J).

    Note: A case name must not be included in a footnote citation if it appears in the sentence related to the footnote. For example:

    In News Corporation v Lenfest Communications Inc,129 the court had to consider the effect....

    ...

    129(1996) 40 NSWLR 250.

    Bibliography examples

    Type Bibliography example

    Individual party names

    Price v Underwood (2008) 39 Fam LR 614

    Company party names

    Monument Productions Pty Ltd v Lewarne (2009) 254 ALR 223

    The Crown as the first party

    R v Nagy [1992] 1 VR 637

    The Crown as respondent

    Chamberlain v The Queen [No 2] (1984) 153 CLR 521

    Short Titles

    Short titles may be used for cases that are referred to more than once. The shortened title must be in italics and within single inverted commas and round brackets ('...') following the initial citation.

    First use of a short title in the text:

    The external affairs power has been interpreted widely in Commonwealth v Tasmania ('Tasmanian Dam Case').44

    First use of a short title in a footnote:

    44(1983) 158 CLR 1 ('Tasmanian Dam Case').

    Subsequent use of a short title in the text:

    A majority in the Tasmanian Dam Case held that the...

    Subsequent use of a short title in a footnote:

    46Tasmanian Dam Case (n 44) 109 (Gibbs CJ).

    Law report abbreviations

    Look up legal abbreviations via Cardiff University database Opens in new window .

    Case law

    Unreported decision (with a medium neutral citation)

    Case name [Year] Court Judgement no. [Pinpoint] Judge(s)

    Rowland v Alfred Health

    [2014]

    FCA

    2

    [75]

    (Marshall ACJ).

    Note: A case should generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported.

    Note: If a medium neutral citation is not available see AGLC4 section 2.3.2 rules for citing unreported decisions without a Medium Neutral Citation.

    Footnote examples

    Type Footnote example

    Individual party names

    1 Sarvari v Atapati [2017] FamCA 928 [3] (Cronin J).

    Company party names

    1 Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33.

    The Crown as the first party

    1 R v De Grichy [2006] VSCA 10 [4] (Vincent JA).

    The Crown as respondent

    1 Murray v The Queen [2002] HCA 26 [54]-[55] (Gummow and Hayne JJ).

    Bibliography examples

    Type Bibliography example

    Individual party names

    Sarvari v Atapati [2017] FamCA 928

    Company party names

    Trusted Cloud Pty Ltd v Core Desktop Pty Ltd [2015] FCA 33

    The Crown as the first party

    R v De Grichy [2006] VSCA 10

    The Crown as respondent

    Murray v The Queen [2002] HCA 26

    Court abbreviations

    Look up legal abbreviations via Cardiff University database Opens in new window .

    Legislation

    Statutes (Acts of Parliament)

    Title Year Jurisdiction Pinpoint

    Competition and Consumer Act

    2010

    (Cth)

    s 76.

    Footnote example

    1 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic) s 1.

    Bibliography example

    Crimes Act 1958 (Vic)

    Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

    Short Titles

    Short titles may be used for an Act that is referred to more than once. The short title must be in italics and within single inverted commas and round brackets ('...') following the inital citation.

    First use of a short title in the text:

    Australia's Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) ('TMA') adopted a broad, open-ended definition...25

    First use of a short title in a footnote:

    25 Trade Marks Act 1995 (Cth) s 6 ('TMA').

    Subsequent use of a short title in the text:

    Part V then turns to consider what reform of the TMA should look like.

    Subsequent use of a short title in a footnote:

    28 TMA (n 25) s 120.

    Legislation

    Delegated Legislation

    Title Year Jurisdiction Pinpoint

    National Parks and Wildlife Regulation

    2009

    (NSW)

    reg 6.

    Footnote example

    1 Heritage Regulation 2006 (ACT) reg 5(1).

    2 Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic) r 3.01.

    3 Federal Court Rules 1979 (Cth) ords 3,5-6.

    Bibliography example

    Heritage Regulation 2006 (ACT)

    Supreme Court (General Civil Procedure) Rules 2015 (Vic)

    Federal Court Rules 1979 (Cth)

    Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

    Short Titles

    Short titles may be used for delegated legislation that is referred to more than once. The shortened version must be in italics and within single inverted commas and round brackets ('...') following the initial citation.

    First use of a short title in the text:

    The Air Navigation Regulation 2016 (Cth) ('AN Regulation') definition of cargo excludes carry-on luggage.21

    First use of a short title in a footnote:

    21 Air Navigation Regulation 2016 (Cth) reg 5(1) ('AN Regulation').

    Subsequent use of a short title in the text:

    In accordance with the AN Regulation, the secretary can vary, suspend or cancel an international licence for a range of reasons.26

    Subsequent use of a short title in a footnote:

    26 AN Regulation (n 21) reg 20.

    Legislation

    Bills

    Title Year Jurisdiction Pinpoint

    Interactive Gambling Bill

    2001

    (Cth)

    cl 2.

    Footnote example

    1 Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83.

    2 Spent Convictions Bill 2019 (Vic).

    Bibliography example

    Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth)

    Spent Convictions Bill 2019 (Vic)

    Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

    Short Titles

    Short titles may be used for a Bill that is referred to more than once. The short title must be within single inverted commas and round brackets ('...') following the initial citation.

    First use of a short title in the text:

    As outlined in the Guardianship and Administration Bill 2018 (Vic) ('GA Bill'), when making a decision for a represented person, one must ensure the represented person's wishes and preferences are considered.10

    First use of a short title in a footnote:

    10 Guardianship and Administration Bill 2018 (Vic) cl 9 ('GA Bill').

    Subsequent use of a short title in the text:

    The GA Bill confirms that the guardian does not have the power to make or revoke a will or enduring power of attorney.14

    Subsequent use of a short title in a footnote:

    14 GA Bill (n 10) cl 39.

    Legislation

    Explanatory Memoranda

    Explanatory Memorandum Title of Bill Year of Bill Jurisdiction Pinpoint

    Explanatory Memorandum,

    Engineers Registration Bill

    2018

    (Vic)

    3.

    Footnote example

    1 Explanatory Memorandum, Corporate Law Reform Bill 1992 (Cth).

    2 Explanatory Notes, Adoption Bill 2009 (Qld) 5-6, 29.

    Bibliography example

    Explanatory Memorandum, Corporate Law Reform Bill 1992 (Cth)

    Explanatory Notes, Adoption Bill 2009 (Qld)

    Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

    Legislation

    Australian Constitutions

    Title Pinpoint

    Australian Constitution

    s 51.

    Footnote example

    1 Australian Constitution s 72(i).

    Bibliography example

    Australian Constitution

    Note: If required the Australian Constitution may also be cited within its enacting legislation, ie Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (Imp) 63 & 64 Vict, c 12, s 9.

    Note: Constitutions of Australian states should be cited as normal statutes, ie Constitution Act 1975 (Vic).

    Abbreviations for Australian jurisdictions

    Books and e-books

    One author

    These rules apply to referencing print books and e-books.

    Author Title Publication details Pinpoint

    Stephen Graw,

    An Introduction to the the Law of Contract

    (Lawbook, 9th ed, 2017)

    91.

    Examples

    Type Footnote example

    Individual author

    1 Brian Williams, Working with Victims of Crime: Policies, Politics and Practice (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1999) 139.

    Corporate body as author

    1 McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4thed, 1998).

    Publisher as author

    1 Melbourne University Law Review, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4thed, 2018) 5.

    Bibliography examples

    In a bibliography, list the author's family name first. Sources must be listed in alphabetical order by author.

    Type Bibliography example

    Individual author

    Williams, Brian, Working with Victims of Crime: Policies, Politics and Practice (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 1999)

    Corporate body as author

    McGill Law Journal, Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation (Carswell Thomson, 4th ed, 1998)

    Publisher as author

    Melbourne University Law Review, Australian Guide to Legal Citation (4th ed, 2018)

    Books and e-books

    Two authors

    These rules apply to referencing printed books and e-books.

    Author Title Publication details Pinpoint

    Kerstin Braun and Andrew Hemming,

    Criminal Procedure

    (LexisNexis, 2016)

    ch 4.

    Footnote examples

    1 Daniel Khoury and Yvonne S Yamouni, Understanding Contract Law (LexisNexis, 8th ed, 2010) 12.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Books should be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Khoury, Daniel and Yvonne S Yamouni, Understanding Contract Law (LexisNexis, 8th ed, 2010)

    Books and e-books

    Three authors

    These rules apply to referencing printed books and e-books.

    Authors Title Publication details Pinpoint

    Carolyn Sappideen, Paul M O'Grady and Joellen Rilley,

    Macken's Law of Employment

    (Lawbook, 8th ed, 2016)

    149.

    Footnote examples

    1 Sarah Joseph, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed, 2004) 57.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Books should be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Joseph, Sarah, Jenny Schultz and Melissa Castan, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: Cases, Materials and Commentary (Oxford Univesity Press, 2nd ed, 2004)

    Books and e-books

    Four or more authors

    These rules apply to referencing printed books and e-books.

    Authors Title Publication details Pinpoint

    B Pentony et al,

    Understanding Business Law

    (LexisNexis, 4th ed, 2009)

    123.

    Footnote examples

    1 Stephen Colbran et al, Civil Procedure: Commentary and Materials (LexisNexis, 6th ed, 2015) ch 2.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by first author's family name.

    Colbran, Stephen et al, Civil Procedure: Commentary and Materials (LexisNexis, 6th ed, 2015)

    Books and e-books

    Chapter in edited book

    These rules apply to referencing printed books and e-books.

    Chapter authors Chapter title Editor Book title Publication details Chapter starting page Pinpoint

    Ian Freckelton,

    'Expert Evidence'

    in Vicki Waye (ed),

    A Guide to Arbitration Practice in Australia

    (University of Adelaide, 2nd ed, 2006)

    663,

    682.

    Footnote examples

    1 Angus Francis and Neil Andrews, 'Insolvency Law in Taiwan: The Interplay Between Official and Unofficial Law' in Roman Tomasic (ed), Insolvency Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 2006) 125, 131.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, put the chapter author's family name first. Sources should be listed in alphabetical order by the chapter author's family name.

    Francis, Angus and Neil Andrews, 'Insolvency Law in Taiwan: The Interplay Between Official and Unofficial Law' in Roman Tomasic (ed), Insolvency Law in East Asia (Ashgate, 2006) 125

    Government Documents

    Parliamentary Debates

    Jurisdiction Parliamentary Debates Chamber Full Date Pinpoint Speaker

    Commonwealth,

    Parliamentary Debates,

    Senate,

    4 July 2019,

    3

    (Mathias Corman).

    Footnote example

    1 Victoria, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Council, 20 June 2019, 2792 (Fiona Patten).

    Bibliography example

    Victoria, Parliamentary Debates, Legislative Council, 20 June 2019

    Government Documents

    Parliamentary Committee Reports

    Committee Legislature Title Document type Document number Date Pinpoint

    Environment and Natural Resources Committee,

    Parliament of Victoria,

    Inquiry into the Environment Effects Statetement Process in Victoria

    (Parliamentary Paper

    No 59,

    September 2011)

    213.

    Footnote example

    1 Senate Standing Committee for the Scrutiny of Bills, Parliament of Australia, Alert Digest (Digest No 9 of 2007, 13 August 2007) 11.

    Bibliography example

    Senate Standing Committee for the Scrutiny of Bills, Parliament of Australia, Alert Digest (Digest No 9 of 2007, 13 August 2007)

    Government Documents

    Law Reform Commission Reports

    Author Title Document type Document number Date Pinpoint

    Australian Law Reform Commission,

    Elder Abuse

    (Discussion Paper

    No 83,

    December 2016)

    17.

    Footnote example

    1 Victorian Law Reform Commission, Contempt of Court (Consultation Paper, May 2019) 17.

    Bibliography example

    Victorian Law Reform Commission, Contempt of Court (Consultation Paper, May 2019)

    Articles

    Journal article with one author

    Author Article title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Starting page Pinpoint

    Jessica Hudson,

    'The Price of Coherence in Estoppels'

    (2017)

    39(1)

    Sydney Law Review

    1,

    12.

    Footnote example

    1 Sidney Tilmouth, 'Courtroom Advocacy: Reflections of a Trial Judge' (2012) 36(1) Australian Bar Review 31, 32.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Books should be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Tilmouth, Sidney, 'Courtroom Advocacy: Reflections of a Trial Judge' (2012) 36(1) Australian Bar Review 31

    Articles

    Journal article with two authors

    Two authors Article title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Starting page Pintpoint

    Kathy Bowrey and Natalie Fowell,

    'Digging Up Fragments and Building IP Franchises'

    (2009)

    31(2)

    Sydney Law Review

    185,

    190.

    Footnote example

    1 Jemina Napier and Alastair McEwin, 'Do Deaf People Have the Right to Serve as Jurors in Australia?' (2015) 40(1) Alternative Law Journal 23, 25.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Articles must be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Napier, Jemina and Alastair McEwin, 'Do Deaf People Have the Right to Serve as Jurors in Australia?' (2015) 40(1) Alternative Law Journal 23

    Articles

    Journal article with three authors

    Three authors Article title Year Vol. & Issue Journal Starting page Pintpoint

    Alisha Mathew, Simin Yang and Tim Clark,

    'The Jean-Pictet Competition: International Humanitarian Law'

    (2013)

    22(2)

    Human Rights Defender

    27,

    28.

    Footnote example

    1 Matthew Alderton, Michael Granziera and Martin Smith, 'Judicial Review and Jurisdictional Errors: The Recent Migration Jurisprudence of the High Court of Australia' (2011) 18(3) Australian Journal of Administrative Law 138, 141.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Articles must be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Alderton, Matthew, Michael Granziera and Martin Smith, 'Judicial Review and Jurisdictional Errors: The Recent Migration Jurisprudence of the High Court of Australia' (2011) 18(3) Australian Journal of Administrative Law 138

    Articles

    Journal article with four or more authors

    Four or more authors Article title Year Volume & Issue Journal title Starting page Pintpoint

    Darren Bick et al,

    'A Gold Mine for Environmental Class Actions in Australia?'

    (2010)

    25(9-10)

    Australian Environment Review

    8,

    10.

    Footnote example

    1 Jeremy Prichard et al, 'Ice Rushes, Data Shadows and Methylamphetamine Use in Rural Towns: Wastewater Analysis' (2018) 29(3) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 195, 201.

    Bibliography example

    In a bibliography, list the first author's family name first. Articles must be listed in alphabetical order by the first author's family name.

    Prichard, Jeremy et al, 'Ice Rushes, Data Shadows and Methylamphetamine Use in Rural Towns: Wastewater Analysis' (2018) 29(3) Current Issues in Criminal Justice 195

    International Materials

    Treaties

    Title Parties' Names Signature Treaty Series Entry info Force Pinpoint

    International Agreement on the Scheldt,

    Belgium–France–Netherlands,

    signed 3 December 2002,

    2351 UNTS 13

    (entered into force 1 December 2005)

    art 5.

    Footnote example

    1 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 Novemeber 1950, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953).

    Bibliography example

    Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 221 (entered into force 3 September 1953)

    Encyclopedias and Looseleaf Services

    Online Legal Encyclopedias

    Publisher Title of Encyclopedia Date Title Chapter Pinpoint

    Westlaw AU,

    The Laws of Australia

    (online at 5 August 2019)

    3 Bankruptcy,

    '3.3 Voluntary Bankruptcy'

    [3.3.20].

    Footnote example

    1 LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (online at 20 July 2019) 205 Family Law, '3 Children' [205-1435].

    Bibliography example

    LexisNexis, Halsbury's Laws of Australia (online at 20 July 2019) 205 Family Law, '3 Children'

    Encyclopedias and Looseleaf Services

    Online Looseleaf Services

    Author Publisher Title Date Pinpoint

    JK Arthur,

    LexisNexis,

    Civil Procedure Victoria

    (online at 1 August 2019)

    [7417].

    Footnote example

    1 CCH Australia, Australian Intellectual Property Commentary (online at 20 July 2019) [7-000].

    Bibliography example

    CCH Australia, Australian Intellectual Property Commentary (online at 20 July 2019)

    Conference Papers and Speeches

    Conference Papers

    Author Title Conference Full Date Pinpoint

    Francesco Quarta,

    'Class Actions, Extra-Compensatory Damages, and Judicial Recognition in Europe'

    (Conference Paper, Extraterritoriality and Collective Redress,

    15 November 2010)

    7.

    Footnote example

    1 Luke McNamara and Katherine Gelber, 'The Impact of Section 18C and Other Civil Anti-Vilification Laws in Australia' (Conference Paper, 40 Years of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) Conference, 19-20 February 2015) 167.

    Bibliography example

    McNamara, Luke and Katherine Gelber, 'The Impact of Section 18C and Other Civil Anti-Vilification Laws in Australia' (Conference Paper, 40 Years of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) Conference, 19-20 February 2015)

    Note: If a conference paper has been published in a journal or a book then cite it in accordance with the rules for a journal article or a book chapter.

    Conference Papers and Speeches

    Speeches

    Author Title Institution/Forum Full Date Pinpoint

    Justice Dyson Heydon,

    'Threats to Judicial Independence: The Enemy Within'

    (Speech, Inner Temple,

    23 January 2012)

    3.

    Footnote example

    1 Brett Walker, 'The Information that Democracy Needs' (Whitlam Oration, Western Sydney University, 5 June 2018) 5.

    Bibliography example

    Walker, Brett, 'The Information that Democracy Needs' (Whitlam Oration, Western Sydney University, 5 June 2018)

    Internet Materials

    Internet Materials

    Author Document Title Web Page Title Document Type Date URL

    Geoffrey Gibson,

    'Here and There: A Different Kind of President',

    With Compliments

    (Blog Post,

    8 August 2019)

    <https://www.geoffrey-gibson.com>.

    Footnote example

    1 'Consumer Scams', Consumer Affairs Victoria (Web Page, 19 July 2019) <https://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/resources-and-tools/scams/consumer-scams>.

    Bibliography example

    'Consumer Scams', Consumer Affairs Victoria (Web Page, 19 July 2019) <https://www.consumer.vic.gov.au/resources-and-tools/scams/consumer-scams>

    Using Oxford

    Introduction to Oxford

    Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

    Oxford is a footnote citation referencing style.

    Oxford style requires the use of footnotes at the bottom of each page where material has been cited, and also a Reference List at the end of the document.

    Superscript numbers appear within the body of the document where you cite another’s work, these refer to footnotes at the bottom of each page. Footnotes generally include the author(s) initials and family name, source title, publication details, year of publication, and page number.

    A reference list provides full details of all footnote references at the end of the document.

    Additional resources

    Refer to the Victoria University Oxford referencing guideOpens in new window .

    Oxford Referencing: The Basics (video)Opens in new window .

    Victoria University referencing guides .Opens in new window .

    Using Oxford

    The footnote citation

    All sources of information such as quotes must be acknowledged in your essay.

    Footnote example

    ... was by no means the first to make this classical connection. As Dr. Peter Londey says of Bean he 'turned for inspiration to the new, young radical democracy of Athens in the fifth century BC'.1 Yet an early report of the Gallipoli landing indicated that the strain of the battle caused discipline to break down and for many soldiers to 'lose their way'.2 In the intervening years public opinion has oscillated between these two points of view, remaining steadfastly 'pro ANZAC' until the end of the 1950s,3 then anti-war during the 1960s and 1970s, 'settling in the last decade to somewhere in the middleground'.4

    __________________________________________________________

    1 P. Londey, 'A Possession Forever: Charles Bean, the Ancient Greeks, and Military Commemoration in Australia', Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 53, no. 3, 2007, p. 345.
    2 M. Lake and H. Reynolds, What's Wrong with ANZAC?: The Militisation of Australian History, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2010, p. 8.
    3 Londey, 'A Possession Forever', p. 352.
    4 Lake and Reynolds, What's Wrong with ANZAC?, p. 38.

    Repeated citations

    If you are frequently citing a particular work in your essay, give the full details of the work in your first footnote. In subsequent footnotes for this work, use the shortened format of: author surname, abbreviated title and the page number. See footnotes 3 and 4 in the example above for the shortened footnote format. Always include the full details of each work in your Reference List.

    Using Oxford

    The reference list

    Reference List or Bibliography

    The terms ‘Bibliography’ and ‘Reference List’ are often used interchangeably, however a Reference List only includes items you have referenced in your assignment whereas a Bibliography also includes items used to prepare your assignment. Check with your academic or supervisor which one they require.

    Primary and Secondary Sources

    Some academics require your Reference List to be divided into Primary and Secondary Sources.

    A Primary Source is an original work or document, i.e. the raw material or first-hand information used in research. Primary sources include historical and legal documents, archival material, eyewitness accounts, autobiographies, diaries, letters, photographs, novels, poems, plays, films, newsreels, statistical data and original research published in a journal article or book, or produced as a thesis.

    A Secondary Source is something written about a primary source. Secondary sources include comments on, interpretations of, evaluations or discussions about the original material. Secondary source materials can be articles in newspapers or scholarly journals, documentaries, or books or chapters written about events or about original research.

    Check with your academic or supervisor as to which style of Reference List they require.

    Using Oxford

    How to use quotes

    A direct quote is when you are using the exact words of the author(s).

    Direct quotes under 30 words are included in the body of your essay enclosed in single inverted commas and followed with a superscript number that refers to a footnote at the bottom of your page, e.g.

    in recent years this has become more apparent. As Jennifer Craik notes 'at best, an Australian sense of style is regarded as anything that is practical, informal and casual'.1

    Block Quotations

    If a direct quote is 30 words or more it is called a block quote .

    For block quotes, omit the quotation marks, start the quote as a new paragraph on a new line and indent the whole quote 1 cm from the left-hand margin of the page. Don't indent from the right hand margin. Introduce the quote with a colon. As a rule, block quotes should be used sparingly in your essay. A superscript number is inserted at the end of a block quote, e.g.

    The Australian cultural renaissance of the post-war era is well documented but it is debatable whether the concept of an Australian fashion identity has permeated beyond our shores:

      The idea of "fashion" as being a characteristic of Australian culture is frequently regarded as a non sequitur. Fashion is seen as belonging to far-flung cosmopolitan sites elsewhere while Australia is a far-flung site cut off from the trappings of civilization. Equally, Australia has long been regarded as being cut off from the "finer things" of civility, fashion, and good taste. At best, an Australian sense of style is regarded as anything that is practical, informal, and casual—T-shirts, practical footwear, moleskin trousers, and wide-brim hats; as an outfit thrown together without much thought.1

    Using Oxford

    Secondary citations

    If you read an article or book that includes a quote from another author's work that you want to cite, this is called a Secondary Citation (or Secondary Source). For quotes from Secondary Sources include the details of both works in your footnote, as below.

    10 R. Ago, Gusto for Things, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2013, cited in D. Biow, On the Importance of being an Individual in Renaissance Italy, Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, p. 220.

    In your Reference List only include the source where you found the information, e.g.

    Biow, D., On the Importance of being an Individual in Renaissance Italy, Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

    Important:Secondary citations are generally not recommended. You should always try to locate the original source of information which is quoted in a work which you have read. However, this is not always possible as sometimes the original work is out of print, unavailable through your usual sources or not available in English, under these circumstances a secondary citation may be acceptable.

    Books & e-books

    Single author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    As a result of conflict that occurred within India, ‘The Mughal family lost its royal status’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 P. Clause, History: An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice, 2nd edn., Florence, Routledge, 2017, p. 11.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    4 Clause, History, p. 11.

    Reference list

    Clause, P., History: An Introduction to Theory, Method and Practice, 2nd edn., Florence, Routledge, 2017.

    Books & e-books

    Two authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    As all the countries involved relied upon each other for economic stability, ‘Angell argued that war made no sense amongst the great powers’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 M. Lake and H. Reynolds, What's Wrong with ANZAC? : The Militarisation of Australian History, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2010, p. 38.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    6 Lake and Reynolds, What’s wrong with ANZAC?, p. 38.

    Reference list

    Lake, M., and Reynolds, H., What's Wrong with ANZAC? : The Militarisation of Australian History, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2010.

    Books & e-books

    Three authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    ‘Nick Herd (1983) has sketched the development of independent filmmaking in Australia in the 1970s’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1T. FitzSimons, P. Laughren, and D. Williamson, Australian Documentary: History, Practices and Genres, 2nd edn., Port Melbourne, VIC, Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 78.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    2 FitzSimons, Australian Documentary, p. 78.

    Reference list

    FitzSimons, T., Laughren, P., and Williamson, D., Australian Documentary: History, Practices and Genres, 2nd edn., Port Melbourne, VIC, Cambridge University Press, 2011.

    Books & e-books

    More than Three authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    There can be multiple factors that lead a country to have water shortages, that’s why ‘The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is one of the world's water-poor nations’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1D. McKenzie-Mohr et al., Social Marketing to Protect the Environment, Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications, 2012, pp. 197-198.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    9 McKenzie-Mohr, Social Marketing, pp. 197-198.

    Reference list

    McKenzie-Mohr, D. et al., Social Marketing to Protect the Environment, Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications, 2012.

    Books & e-books

    No author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Wars that started around 1848 in the southwest of the US involving ‘Skirmishes between Apache and Americans of European descent continued until 1924’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1Dictionary Plus History, Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 1.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    4 Dictionary Plus History, p. 1.

    Reference list

    Dictionary Plus History, Oxford University Press, 2016.

    Books & e-books

    Editor

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Defeat is as much a part of AFL as victory and this is skilfully depicted as ‘Essendon’s Dean Wallis contemplates the preliminary final loss as Carlton players celebrate’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1J. Murray (ed.), Our Great Game: The Photographic History of Australian Football, Docklands, VIC, Slattery Media Group, 2010, p. 262.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    6 Our Great Game, p. 262.

    Reference list

    Murray, J. (ed.), Our Great Game: The Photographic History of Australian Football, Docklands, VIC, Slattery Media Group, 2010.

    Books & e-books

    Chatper or part of a Book to which a number of authors have contributed

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    A benefit of renewable energy is that 'solar energy includes both direction radiation and indirect forms of energy'.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1A. Blakers, 'Sustainable energy', in J. Goldie, B. Douglas, and B. Furnass, (eds.), In Search of Sustainability, Collingwood, VIC, CSIRO Publishing, 2004, p. 99.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    7 Blakers, 'Sustainable energy', p. 99.

    Reference list

    Blakers, A., 'Sustainable energy', in J. Goldie, B. Douglas, and B. Furnass, (eds.), In Search of Sustainability, Collingwood, VIC, CSIRO Publishing, 2004, pp. 97-106.

    Books & e-books

    Translator & author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Liksom’s novel is a story about companionship between a man and a woman as they travel through ‘villages of exiles, across the open and closed cities of Siberia to the capital of Mongolia, Ulan Bator’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 R.Liksom, Compartment no. 6, trans. L. Rogers, London, Serpent's Tail, 2014, p. 1.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    3 Liksom, Compartment, p.1.

    Reference list

    Liksom, R., Compartment no. 6, trans. L. Rogers, London, Serpent's Tail, 2014.

    Books & e-books

    Organisation as author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Young people in Central America and Southeast Asia are more likely to work in hazardous jobs - ‘among adolescents aged 15 to 17 years is highest in Nicaragua (34 per cent), Cambodia (30 per cent), Honduras (27 per cent) and Lao PDR (26 per cent)’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 International Labour Organisation, World Report on Child Labour, Geneva, International Labour Organisation, 2015, p. 44.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5 ILO, World Report, p. 44.

    Reference list

    International Labour Organisation, World Report on Child Labour, Geneva, International Labour Organisation, 2015.

    Books & e-books

    e-book

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    In the late Middle Ages power was sought by artisans, patrician lineages and feudal royalties, and ‘Eventually power was typically shared between three groups’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 B. De Munck, Guilds, Labour and the Urban Body Politic: Fabricating Community in the Southern Netherlands 1300-1800, Milton, UK, Routledge, 2017, p. 73.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5 De Munck, Guilds, Labour, p. 73.

    Reference list

    De Munck, B., Guilds, Labour and the Urban Body Politic: Fabricating Community in the Southern Netherlands 1300-1800, Milton, UK, Routledge, 2017.

    Books & e-books

    Accessed from a Webpage

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Orwell shows a crowd can instantly be persuaded as, ‘Without words said, a wave of understanding rippled through the crowd. Oceania was at war with Eastasia’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1G. Orwell, 1984, George-orwell.org, 2005, part 2, ch. 9, para. 4, http://www.george-orwell.org/1984, (accessed 3 September 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5Orwell, 1984, part 2.

    Reference list

    Orwell, G., 1984, George-orwell.org, 2005, http://www.george-orwell.org/1984, (accessed 3 September 2018).

    Books & e-books

    Multiple works same author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    According to Black, Britain’s political history at home and abroad throughout the centuries has been very complex.1,2

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 J. Black, The British Empire: A History and a Debate, London, UK, Routledge, 2015a, pp. 123-135.

    2 J. Black, British Politics and Foreign Policy, 1744-57: Mid-Century Crisis, London, UK, Routledge, 2015b, pp. 78-81.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5 Black, The British Empire, pp. 123-135.

    9 Black, British Politics, pp. 78-81.

    Reference list

    Black, J., The British Empire: A History and a Debate, London, UK, Routledge, 2015a.

    Black, J., British Politics and Foreign Policy, 1744-57: Mid-Century Crisis, London, UK, Routledge, 2015b.

    Books & e-books

    Exhibition Catalogue

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Artists can struggle with self-portraits, as Anders Zorn recalls etching himself within The Waltz, ‘I particularly recall my efforts with that troublesome task’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 J. Cederlund et al., Anders Zorn: Sweden’s Master Painter, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco, CA, Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco (Skira Rizzoli), 2013, p. 12.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5 Cederlund, Anders Zorn, p. 12.

    Reference list

    Cederlund, J. et al., Anders Zorn: Sweden's Master Painter, exhibition catalogue, San Francisco, CA, Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco (Skira Rizzoli), 2013.

    Books & e-books

    Secondary Citations

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    An aspect of individualism in sixteenth-century Italy were beards, as there was believed to be a strong connection ‘between a highly crafted male identity and the conscious shaping of beards’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1R. Ago, Gusto for Things, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2013, cited in D. Biow, On the Importance of Being an Individual in Renaissance Italy, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, p. 214.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    15 Ago, Gusto for Things in Biow, On the Importance of Being, p. 214.

    Reference list

    Biow, D., On the Importance of Being an Individual in Renaissance Italy, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015.

    Newspapers

    Article

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Schools are shifting focus from trying to win awards, to improving the ways they offer opportunities for students future, ‘Some of our biggest improvers have rolled out simple initiatives such as taking students on tours of universities to expose them to careers and the concept of tertiary education.'1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 H. Cook, 'Shining Light on Unsung Heros',  The Age, 25 March 2019, p. 9.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    11 Cook, ‘Shining Light on Unsung Heros’, p. 9.

    Reference list

    Cook, H., 'Shining Light on Unsung Heros',  The Age, 25 March 2019, p. 9.

    Newspapers

    Article from a website

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The "Ride of the Four Horsemen" section of “The Apocalypse”, Gallienne describes as been very intense, as it is ‘made extraordinarly vivid and blood-curdling by strange choral figures like slow trills’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 D. Le Gallienne, ‘Goossens Made Musical History’,  The Argus, 23 November 1954, p. 7, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/23462157?searchTerm=Sydney%20history%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&searchLimits=l-title=13, (accessed 13 September 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    15 Le Gallienne, ‘Goossens Made Musical History’, p. 7.

    Reference list

    Le Gallienne, D., ‘Goossens Made Musical History’, The Argus, 23 November 1954, p. 7, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/23462157?searchTerm=Sydney%20history%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&searchLimits=l-title=13, (accessed 13 September 2018).

    Journal

    Article on the Internet

    Footnote citation first use

    For in-text citations, cite as you would for a book. An example of paraphrasing:

    Ogilvy explores the excessive preoccupation with enhancing human life: extending life to promote its longevity, and increasing human intelligence. (10)

    Reference list

    In the Reference List, include the same information as you would for a print journal. Note the punctuation used and where spaces are used or not used. In addition, note the following:

    10. Ogilvy J. Human enhancement and the computational metaphor. J Evol Technol. [Internet]. 2011 Dec [cited 2018 Mar 9];22(1):[about 12 p.]. Available from: https://jetpress.org/v22/ogilvy.htm

    Newspapers

    Article no author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The development of new train stations within Melbourne CBD and surrounding suburbs, is creating many jobs in infrastructure, but also within the arts. The Victorian Government is looking ‘to find artists who will be given the rare chance to create public artworks in the heart of Melbourne.’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 'Art for Metro Tunnel', The Age, 25 March 2019, p. 2.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    10 'Art for Metro Tunnel’, p. 2.

    Reference list

    'Art for Metro Tunnel', The Age, 25 March 2019, p. 2.

    Journal articles

    Single author

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Oztas states that although 'values are beliefs, they are not entirely objective, free of emotion’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1S. Oztas, ‘A Literary Genre in Value Education in History Courses: Poems’, Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 6, no. 5, 2018, p. 35.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    5 Oztas, 'A Literary Genre', p. 37.

    Reference list

    Oztas, S., ‘A Literary Genre in Value Education in History Courses: Poems’, Journal of Education and Training Studies, vol. 6, no. 5, 2018, pp. 34-39.

    Journal articles

    Two authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    When discussing the future of teachers and education Purchell and Barrell note, ‘The importance of IL skills for students on professional education courses cannot be underestimated’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1S. Purchell and R. Barrell, 'The Value of Collaboration: Raising Confidence and Skills in Information Literacy with First Year Initial Teacher Education Students', Journal of Information Literacy, vol. 8, no. 2, 2014, p. 58.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    9Purchell and Barrell, 'The Value of Collaboration', p. 62.

    Reference list

    Purchell, S. and Barrell, R., 'The Value of Collaboration: Raising Confidence and Skills in Information Literacy with First Year Initial Teacher Education Students', Journal of Information Literacy, vol. 8, no. 2, 2014, pp. 56-70.

    Journal articles

    Three authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Smartphones have become a greater part of education, though not without challenges such as ‘small viewing screens on the smartphones and limited data coverage to access the MIL lessons’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1A. Schmidt Hanbidge, T. Tin, and N. Sanderson, 'Information Literacy Skills on the Go: Mobile Learning Innovation', Journal of Information Literacy, vol. 12, no. 1, 2018, p. 130.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    11 Schmidt Hanbidge, Tin, and Sanderson, 'Information Literacy', p. 127.

    Reference list

    Schmidt Hanbidge A., Tin, T., and Sanderson, N., 'Information Literacy Skills on the Go: Mobile Learning Innovation', Journal of Information Literacy, vol. 12, no. 1, 2018, pp. 118-136.

    Journal articles

    More than three authors

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    It was identified in this article that the use of cards with secondary students was a cognitive tool which allowed students, ‘to reconstruct a global view of an historical period’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1M. Banfi et al., 'Cards as a Tool in History Teaching', Form@re: Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018, p. 370.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    12 Banfi et al., 'Cards as a Tool', p. 372.

    Reference list

    Banfi, M. et al., 'Cards as a Tool in History Teaching', Form@re: Open Journal per la Formazione in Rete, vol. 18, no. 1, 2018, pp. 368-378.

    Journal articles

    Electronic Journal

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    In sport sections of Australia’s top newspapers, gender-based violence in AFL is discussed as independent from the league, as ‘there were stories in both papers that favoured narratives of individualism to explain how sexual assault occurs’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Toffoletti, 'How is Gender-based Violence Covered in the Sporting News?: An Account of the Australian Football League Sex Scandal', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 30, no. 5, 2007, p. 427.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    8 Toffoletti, 'How is Gender-based Violence Covered', p. 440.

    Reference list

    Toffoletti, K., 'How is Gender-based Violence Covered in the Sporting News?: An Account of the Australian Football League Sex Scandal', Women's Studies International Forum, vol. 30, no. 5, 2007, pp. 420-444.

    Journal articles

    Accessed from a webpage

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The site of Kastraki includes the foundation of a temple that ‘had its first monumental and architectural phase of development during the 6th century BC and then it was restored at the end of 4th century BC’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1F. Giovagnorio, 'Dedications for the Hero Ptoios in Akraiphia, Boeotia', Rosetta, no. 22, Spring 2018, p. 20, http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk, (accessed 18 September 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    15 Giovagnorio, 'Dedications for the Hero', p. 20.

    Reference list

    Giovagnorio, F., 'Dedications for the Hero Ptoios in Akraiphia, Boeotia', Rosetta, no. 22, Spring 2018, p. 20, http://www.rosetta.bham.ac.uk, (accessed 18 September 2018).

    Internet/ Website

    Web Document

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Wilderness Society Australia aim is working on protecting the Kimberley, ‘also helping to promote Indigenous arts and culture, eco-tourism, land and sea management, and bush foods and medicines'.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Wilderness Society Australia, 'The Kimberley', The Wilderness Society, Hobart, TAS, Wilderness Society Australia, 2018, http://www.wilderness.org.au/work/the-kimberley, (assessed 6 September 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    8 Wilderness Society Australia, ‘The Kimberley’.

    Reference list

    Wilderness Society Australia, 'The Kimberley', The Wilderness Society, Hobart, TAS, Wilderness Society Australia, 2018, http://www.wilderness.org.au/work/the-kimberley, (assessed 6 September 2018).

    Internet/ Website

    Website

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The Indigenous Community Stories project is trying to create audio-visual stories of Western Australia Indigenous people, ‘so they can be viewed by future generations as well as creating invaluable records of Australia's national cultural identity.’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Indigenous Community Stories [website], http://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/articles/indigenous-community-stories, (accessed 12 September 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    12 AIATSIS, Indigenous Community Stories.

    Reference list

    Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, Indigenous Community Stories [website], http://aiatsis.gov.au/explore/articles/indigenous-community-stories, (accessed 12 September 2018).

    Internet/ Website

    Blog

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The craftsmanship necessary for Gérard-Jean Galle to create the Galle Chandelier came from his upbringing, as he ‘came from a family of casters and gilders. His father Claude was one of the premier producers of gilded bronze of his time, creating works for Marie Antoinette.’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Livius, 'Galle Chandelier Restored Sans Goldfish', The History Blog [web blog], 22 April 2019, http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/category/museums, (accessed 2 May 2019).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    6 Livius, ‘Galle Chandelier Restored’.

    Reference list

    Livius, 'Galle Chandelier Restored Sans Goldfish', The History Blog [web blog], 22 April 2019, http://www.thehistoryblog.com/archives/category/museums, (accessed 2 May 2019).

    Internet/ Website

    Digital Image

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Over a decade Adam Whyte developed a collection of images showcasing daily life and landscapes of Burma, also rare images of royalty such as ‘A Minister of State (unidentified) of King Theebaw’. 1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 A.R. Whyte, ‘Griffin Collection of Photographs, Burma, ca. 1880-1890’ [picture], http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151517274, (accessed 2 May 2019).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    16 Whyte, ‘Griffin Collection’

    Reference list

    Whyte, A.R., ‘Griffin Collection of Photographs, Burma, ca. 1880-1890’ [picture], http://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-151517274, (accessed 2 May 2019).

    Books

    Edited book

    Usually, part of a chapter in an edited book is cited in-text unless you refer to an edited book as a whole. Firstly, here is how an edited book is cited in-text and then in the reference list.

    In-text citations

    Cite as you would for a book with an author or authors. If the book has multiple editors, list the first editor and then abbreviate subsequent editors using et al.

    Changes to the nature of healthcare as they relate to inclusive practice are outlined by Davis et al. (5)

    Reference List entry

    5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.

    Chapter in an edited book

    In-text citations

    In the example below, Williams wrote a particular chapter in an edited book and some information in it has been paraphrased. The Reference List entry, given the number (6), shows the author's name and chapter title, followed by details of the book in which that chapter is found.

    According to Williams (6), National Health Surveys are valuable sources of information on the state of health and well-being of Australians.

    Reference List entry

    In the Reference List, provide:

    6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.

    Books

    Edited book

    Usually, part of a chapter in an edited book is cited in-text unless you refer to an edited book as a whole. Firstly, here is how an edited book is cited in-text and then in the reference list.

    In-text citations

    Cite as you would for a book with an author or authors. If the book has multiple editors, list the first editor and then abbreviate subsequent editors using et al.

    Changes to the nature of healthcare as they relate to inclusive practice are outlined by Davis et al. (5)

    Reference List entry

    5. Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015.

    Chapter in an edited book

    In-text citations

    In the example below, Williams wrote a particular chapter in an edited book and some information in it has been paraphrased. The Reference List entry, given the number (6), shows the author's name and chapter title, followed by details of the book in which that chapter is found.

    According to Williams (6), National Health Surveys are valuable sources of information on the state of health and well-being of Australians.

    Reference List entry

    In the Reference List, provide:

    6. Williams G. Population health and health outcomes. In: Davis J, Birks M, Chapman YB, editors. Inclusive practice for health professionals. South Melbourne (Australia): Oxford University Press; 2015. p. 128-60.

    Theses

    Print

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    In order to improve management perspectives in Thailand, Suwetwattanakul concludes this can be achieved by ‘development efforts aimed at transfer of tacit and explicit knowledge and performance improvement should be given attention in the knowledge sharing processes.’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 C. Suwetwattanakul, Developing a Knowledge Sharing Model for the Implementation of the Learning Organization in Thailand, Ph.D. diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2010, p. 237.

    Don't include the city or state location if it is in the title of the University.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    7 Suwetwattanakul, Developing a Knowledge Sharing ... p.169.

    Reference list

    Suwetwattanakul, C., Developing a Knowledge Sharing Model for the Implementation of the Learning Organization in Thailand, Ph.D. diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2010.

    Theses

    Online

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Strategies need to put in place to assist refugees when they settle into a new country, ‘since people often leave in challenging circumstances and travel to societies that are very different from the ones in which they grew up.'1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 W. Abur, Settlement Strategies for the South Sudanese Community in Melbourne: An Analysis of Employment and Sport Participation, MA diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2018, p. 1, http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/36189, (accessed 30 April 2019).

    Don't include the city or state location if it is in the title of the University.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    11 Arbur, Settlement Strategies for the South Sudanese, p.3.

    Reference list

    Abur, W., Settlement Strategies for the South Sudanese Community in Melbourne: An Analysis of Employment and Sport Participation, MA diss., Melbourne, Victoria University, 2018, http://vuir.vu.edu.au/id/eprint/36189, (accessed 30 April 2019).

    Legislation

    Acts

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Extortion can be a threat to different types of property, such as a ‘structure in the nature of a building, bridge, mine, aircraft, vessel, motor vehicle, railway engine or railway carriage is guilty of an indictable offence.'1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Crimes Act 1958 (Vic), s.28

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    12 Crimes Act s.28

    Reference list

    Crimes Act 1958 (Vic), s.28

    Note: No full stops at the end of the citation in the Footnote or the Reference List.

    Legislation

    Bills

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The Carbon Tax Plebiscite Bill 2011 refers to ‘The Referendum (Machinery Provisions) Act 1984'.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Carbon Tax Plebiscite Bill 2011 (Cwlth)

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    12 Carbon Tax, 2011

    Reference list

    Carbon Tax Plebiscite Bill 2011 (Cwlth)

    No Italics.

    Note: No full stops at the end of the citation in the Footnote or the Reference List.

    Legislation

    Case

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Mr. Stinton exposure to asbestos was explained by the lawyer in their affidavit, ‘the plaintiff had been employed all his life in the building industry and instructed that he had been exposed to asbestos cement building materials over the course of his employment’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 Stinton v Amaca Pty Ltd (2014) WL 1350195

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    12 Stinton v Amaca, 2014

    Reference list

    Stinton v Amaca Pty Ltd (2014) WL 1350195

    Note: No full stops at the end of the citation in the Footnote or the Reference List.

    Conference Proceedings

    Conference paper

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Despite the monasteries being in ruins, Kozicz notes that these structures still hold value in understanding ‘geometry of the architectural forms and reconstruct the process of their architectural design in order to examine the transformation of the ideal Buddhist conceptualisation of space’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 G. Kozicz, 'Architecture of the Empty Shells of Nyar ma', Discoveries in Western Tibet and the Western Himalayas: Essays on History, Literature, Archaeology and Art: PIATS 2003, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 41-42.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    9 Kozicz, ‘Architecture of the Empty Shells’, p. 44.

    Reference list

    Kozicz, G., 'Architecture of the Empty Shells of Nyar ma', Discoveries in Western Tibet and the Western Himalayas: Essays on History, Literature, Archaeology and Art: PIATS 2003, Tibetan Studies, Proceedings of the Tenth Seminar of the International Association for Tibetan Studies, Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press, 2006, pp. 38-47.

    The full range of the conference paper's pages is added in the Reference List.

    Personal Communication

    Interview

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Maloney was interviewed by Ferrell in reference to his ‘Recollections of Canberra.’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 J. E. Maloney, 'Recollections of Canberra' [interviewed by John Ferrell], 12 August 1991, John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library, Curtin University, Perth, WA, JCMPL00897/3.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    15 Maloney, ‘Recollections of Canberra’, 1991.

    Reference list

    Maloney, J.E., 'Recollections of Canberra' [interviewed by John Ferrell], 12 August 1991, John Curtin Prime Ministerial Library, Curtin University, Perth, WA, JCMPL00897/3.

    Personal Communication

    Letter of Correspondence

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    Alexander wrote a letter to Gibson in reference to the ’Peace March in Melbourne.’1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1S. Alexander, 'Peace March in Melbourne' [letter to W.R. Gibson], 1 November 1911, Professor W.R. Gibson Collection, University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, VIC, Box 2/1/1.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    8Alexander, ‘Peace March in Melbourne’, 1911.

    Reference list

    Alexander, S., 'Peace March in Melbourne' [letter to W.R. Gibson], 1 November 1911, Professor W.R. Gibson Collection, University of Melbourne Archives, Melbourne, VIC, Box 2/1/1.

    Personal Communication

    Email

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    King emailed his ’History Report’ to Price on the 18th October 2018.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 A. King, ‘History Report’ [email to J. Price], 18 October 2018, < Alan.King@gmail.com >, (accessed 7 November 2018).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    7 King, ‘History Report’, 2018.

    Reference list

    You do not need to include an entry in the reference list

    Multi-Media Format

    Film or Documentary

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    The story of Henry Fleming in “The Red Badge of Courage” is used to illustrate the fear young soldiers felt fighting in the American civil war, ‘I was only scared for a minute, you understand. Just for a minute. Afterwards I was that ashamed, I couldn't get back in the fight soon enough.'1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 The Red Badge of Courage [DVD], Director J. Huston, Burbank, CA, MGM, 1951.

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    11 The Red Badge of Courage, 1951.

    Reference list

    The Red Badge of Courage [DVD], Director J. Huston, Burbank, CA, MGM, 1951.

    Multi-Media Format

    Podcast

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    An interview with Mark Kingwell on ABC Radio National discusses issues with tradition, as according to Kingwell everyone has ‘different visions of how to live a good life. The philosophical question is, how to achieve some kind of basic structure? Such that rival traditions can coexist peacefully.'1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 'The Hipster Philosopher', The Philosopher's Zone [podcast], interview with Mark Kingwell, ABC Radio National, 5 Jan 2014, www.abc.net.au/radionational, (accessed 9 June 2014).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    8 'The Hipster Philosopher’, Kingwell, 2014.

    Reference list

    'The Hipster Philosopher', The Philosopher's Zone [podcast], interview with Mark Kingwell, ABC Radio National, 5 Jan 2014, www.abc.net.au/radionational, (accessed 9 June 2014).

    Multi-Media Format

    Web Video

    Footnote citation first use

    Insert a superscript number at the point of direct quote use. Include full reference details at the bottom of the page with the footnote number.

    In discussing the right to euthanasia, Andrew Denton talks about his personal views on the subject, ‘I don’t advocate for a right to die, because we are all going to die. I advocate for a right to ask for help at the end of life’.1

    __________________________________________________________________

    1 The Euthanasia Debate [online video], Presenter A. Denton, Sydney, Australia, Studio 10, 2016, https://youtu.be/w4Aq1-H2GD0, (accessed 2 January 2019).

    Footnote citation subsequent use

    9 The Euthanasia Debate, Denton, 2016.

    Reference list

    The Euthanasia Debate [online video], Presenter A. Denton, Sydney, Australia, Studio 10, 2016, https://youtu.be/w4Aq1-H2GD0, (accessed 2 January 2019).

    Referencing for students: IEEE style

    Using IEEE

    Introduction to the IEEE referencing style

    Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

    The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) citation style is a numbered style where references are numbered [1], [2], [3] in-text and so on in the order of appearance in the body of the document. A Reference List at the end of the work provides full details of all references cited in-text. The references are ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order). You need to follow this style when acknowledging your information sources.

    Additional resources

    Victoria University IEEE Referencing Style Guide Opens in new window - a full list of reference formats & examples used at VU

    VU IEEE referencing - all format examples (PDF document, 10 pages) Opens in new window - link to PDF document for downloading or printing

    IEEE Computer Society Style Guide Opens in new window - link to PDF document for downloading or printing

    Using IEEE

    General rules for in-text citations

    Paraphrasing

    Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, it’s acceptable to include only the citation as a number in square brackets, or as a number along with the author’s family name as part of your sentence.

    Note: When paraphrasing, the citation details can be placed at the beginning, middle or end of a sentence.

    Citation at the beginning

    Wilde et al. [1] suggest that energy storage is achieved . . .

    Citation in the middle

    This technology is based on a compressed gas hydraulic accumulator [1], and provides an almost perfect isothermal behaviour due to the low speed of the compressions/expansion process.

    Citation at the end

    . . . and determines its charge storage capacity with respect to a vacum [1].

    Note: Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

    Author-prominent citations

    In his research on transducers, Jones [1] proposed a new approach for sensor and actuator selection.

    Information-prominent citations

    . . . and hence linked to an enormous heat exchange surface [1].

    Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

    When paraphrasing, page numbers are not usually used as part of the citation, unless it intends to help the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

    Note: Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the IEEE referencing style.

    Direct quotes

    Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add both the citation number followed by a comma, and the page number(s), preceded by p. or pp. Do not overuse direct quotes.

    Baez et al. have noted that "full 3D stacking can potentially offer additional advantages for memory and processor applications" [1, p. 14].

    If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

    “A flywheel is a mass rotating about an axis, which can store energy mechanically in the form of kinetic energy” [1, Ch. 3, para. 1].

    If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

    As seen in [5, p. 14], “the proposed circuit has improved signal attenuation ..., and has been experiencing less performance degradation due to resistor variation”.

    Note: Quotes longer than three lines are strongly discouraged, and should be avoided.

    Using IEEE

    Citing the same source multiple times

    If citing the same reference within the body of the text, then use the same citation number throughout the text. IEEE does NOT allow for the use of terms such as “ibid.” or “op. cit.” when citing the same reference multiple times. Instead, if the same source is cited multiple times, then it is preferable to distinguish between these with reference to the appropriate section, for example:

    Using IEEE

    Single in-text citations

    Each in-text citation number should be enclosed by square brackets and appear on the text line, inside sentence punctuation, with a space before the bracket, e.g.

    Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems are widely used for circuit analysis simplification [1].

    According to [2], there is little evidence that . . .

    In contrast to [3, p. 7], it is evident that . . .

    In [4], the resulting composite video signal was presented . . .

    As shown by Jones [5] . . .

    . . . as previously shown [6].

    The in-text citations numbers start at [1], and continue in the ascending order throughout the paper – unless you are referring to a source you have already cited in your text, in which case you can use the previously assigned number.

    There is little variation in the formatting of in-text citations whether you are citing a book, a journal article, a web page, or another source.

    At the end of the paper provide full details of all references cited in-text taking into consideration the type of source used. The reference list should be arranged in the order of in-text citations, not in an alphabetical order.

    Any edits to the in-text citation numbers may mean renumbering the reference list.

    Using IEEE

    Multiple in-text citations

    If listing multiple citations within a sentence of text, then the preferred method is to list each citation number separately, or by inserting a comma or en dash between each number.

    In [1], [3], [7] it was noted that . . .

    It is suggested by [6]–[8] that . . .

    It is also acceptable for multiple citations to be listed the following way in-text:

    Recent studies [1, 3, 7] have shown that . . .

    Specific objectives [6–8] indicate that . . .

    Using IEEE

    Secondary source citation

    A secondary citation is used when you acknowledge the work of an author that you have read about in another author’s work.

    The IEEE referencing style does NOT allow for the use of secondary citations.

    If a secondary citation has to be used, then the original source MUST be located and cited.

    If the original source cannot be located, then do NOT cite it.

    Using IEEE

    Abbreviations

    Month abbreviations

    When citing journals, patents and websites, use the following abbreviations for months:

    Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, June, July, Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. (note that some months appear in full and DO NOT require a full stop).

    Use a forward slash for bimonthly issues e.g. Apr./May 2016 and a en dash for a quarterly issue e.g. June–Aug. 2015.

    Word abbreviations

    Standard IEEE words when used in a reference should be abbreviated. See the ‘Common Abbreviations of Words in References’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 40–42.

    Journal title abbreviations

    If referencing any IEEE journals or magazine titles, then refer to the ‘IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 43–48.

    Conference proceeding abbreviations

    When citing conference proceedings, the common rule is to list the author(s), title, name and location (if provided) of the conference and use any standard abbreviations where necessary. For further details, refer to the ‘Published Conference Proceedings’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window p. 36.

    Common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms

    When using common IEEE abbreviations and acronyms in-text, then refer to the ‘Some Common Acronyms and Abbreviations’ section of the IEEE Editorial Style Manual (2016) Opens in new window pp. 49–52.

    Using IEEE

    General rules for the reference list

    General rules

    Digital object identifier (DOI)

    When citing electronic sources such as e-journal articles or e-books, you MUST include a digital object identifier (DOI) if stated. A DOI is a unique identifier that is assigned to certain electronic sources, and provides a persistent link to online content.

    The DOI can be added to the reference list using the following formats:

    1. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxxxx

    2. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxx

    3. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

    If no DOI is assigned, include either the journal/database homepage URL if taken from a library database, or the full URL if taken from a source on the open web.

    Note: There is no full stop after the DOI/URL, and the hyperlink is removed.

    Place of publication

    For the place of publication, add the city, and then include the state code (if applicable) and country name, followed by the publisher and year of publication.

    Cities in the USA need the state abbreviation and country.

    Boston, MA, USA: Cengage Learning, 2017.

    Cities in other countries (outside the USA) just need to include the city name and country.

    Oxford, United Kingdom: Newnes, 2012.

    Using IEEE

    Example of a reference list

    Note: The Reference List is to be formatted using 1.5 line spacing and single paragraph spacing between each citation.

    Reference List

    [1]    R. E. Ziemer and W. H. Tranter, Principles of Communications: Systems, Modulation, and Noise, 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2015.

    [2]    J. D. Bellamy et al., Computer Telephony Integration, New York: Wiley, 2010.

    [3]    N. B. Vargafik, J. A. Wiebelt, and J. F. Malloy, "Radiative transfer," in Convective Heat. Melbourne: Engineering Education Australia, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 379-398.

    [4]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78-99.

    [5]    W. M. Rohsenow, "Heat transmission," in Thermal Radiation Properties, vol. 3, M. W. Catton and J. P. Hartnett, Eds. New York: Macmillan, 2012, ch. 9, pp. 37-62.

    [6]    H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories, Electrical Engineering. A Pocket Reference. Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://ebrary.com

    [7]    G. H. Gaynor, "Dealing with the manager leader dichotomy," in Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2, Developing Leader and Managers. IEEE-USA, 2011, pp. 27-28. Accessed on: Jan. 23, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

    [8]    M. Cvijetic, "Optical transport system engineering," in Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications, vol. 4, J. G. Proakis, Ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2013, pp. 1840-1849. Accessed on: Feb. 5, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

    [9]    T. Kaczorek, “Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits,” Archives of Electrical Engineering., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 191-201, May 2018.

    [10]    P. Harsha and M. Dahleh, “Optimal management and sizing of energy storage under dynamic pricing for the efficient integration of renewable energy,” IEEE Trans. Power Sys., vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 1164-1181, May 2015.

    [11]    A. Vaskuri, H. Baumgartner, P. Kärhä, G. Andor, and E. Ikonen, “Modeling the spectral shape of InGaAIP-based red light-emitting diodes,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 118, no. 20, pp. 203103-1-203103-7, Jul. 2015. Accessed on: Feb. 9, 2017. [Online]. Available: doi: 10.1063/1.4936322

    [12]    C. R. Ozansoy, “Design and implementation of a Universal Communications Processor for substation integration, automation and protection,” Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, 2006. Accessed on: June 22, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/527/

    [13]    S. r. Ayubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," in 13th Int. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, Dec. 2014, pp. 675-680.

    [14]    M. Frishberg and M. M. Gobble, “Quantum dots: beyond solar cells,” Research Technology Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 7-8, May/Jun. 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 13, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

    [15]    Engineers Australia (2015, July 15), Cook Islands Renewable Energy, Engineers Australia, Engineering House, Barton, ACT, Australia. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/news/cook-islands-renewable-energy

    [16]    Michael Blackwood Productions (2007). Engineering Transparency - Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering. Accessed on: Feb. 18, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

    [17]  Department of Premier and Cabinet, PROV environmental sustainability, Melbourne, Australia: Public Record Office Victoria, 2015. Accessed on: June 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://data.vic.gov.au/data/dataset/prov-environmental-sustainability

    [18]  Fixing system for an electrical plate, by Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22). Patent 2016905338. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

    [19]  IEEE Standard for Spectrum Sensing Interfaces and Data Structures for Dynamic Spectrum Access and Other Advanced Radio Communication Systems, IEEE Standard 1900.6, 2011.

    [20]  Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and Equipment, AS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011.

    Books

    Single author

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The high-capacity coolers have been studied in [2], and it is shown that ...

    Anderson [2] states that . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Sustainability conceptually rests on three pillars: economic, social, and environmental continuity" [2, p. 19].

    Anderson notes that "Sustainability conceptually rests on three pillars: economic, social, and environmental continuity" [2, p. 19].

    Reference list

    When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

    [2]    J. R. Anderson, The Ecological Impact of Biofuels, 3rd ed. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018.

    Books

    Book with two or three authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

    Exergy and energy have been examined in [2].

    Dincer, Midilli, and Kucuk [2] state that exergy and energy . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "An exergy analysis determines the exergy destruction within each component and calculates the system exergy efficiency" [2, p. 9].

    Reference list

    List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

    When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

    [2]    C. I. Dicner, A. Midilli, and H. Kucuk, Progress in Exergy, Energy, and the Environment. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2014.

    Books

    Book with four to six authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

    Energy storage is one of the highest technological barriers . . . [2].

    Julien et al. [2] discuss the use of energy storage systems.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "The subject of energy storage is a major development in high technology, which bears considerable industrial potential" [2, p. 1].

    Reference list

    List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

    When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

    [2]    C. Julien, A. Mauger, A. K. Vijh, and K. Zaghib, Lithium Batteries: Science and Technology, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2016.

    Books

    Book with more than six authors

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

    Sustainability implies a continuous and a renewable ability to perform something [2].

    Mytschell et al. [2] examine the human dimension of sustainable development.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Sustainable development has three components: the social, economic, and environmental" [2, p. 17].

    Reference list

    If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

    When citing books make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author initials. Family name, or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

    [2]    B. A. Mytschell et al., Engineering Education for Sustainable Development. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

    Books

    Corporate author

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name/corporate name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family/corporate name.

    The area of materials sciences is one of the Army Research Laboratory’s (ARL) primary core technical competencies [2].

    The Army Research Laboratory (ARM) [2] consider the area of materials sciences one of the primary core technical competencies.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "The 2013 review addressed the areas of biomaterials, energy materials and devices, and photonic materials and devices" [2, p. 23].

    Reference list

    Place corporate name in the author position.

    When citing a book by a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), or name of organisation/company, Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication.

    [2]    Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board, Laboratory Assessments Board, Division of Engineering and Physical Sciences, and National Research Council of the National Academies, 2013-2014 Assessment of the Army Research Laboratory. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2015.

    Books

    Edited, Compiled, or Translated book

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The chemical storage device that captures energy from the sun . . . [2].

    Habbara [2] indicated that primary emissions were the major sources of fine Particulate Matter (PM) pollution.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Primary emissions played an important role in causing high PM pollution during wintertime in Lanzhou" [2, p. 285].

    Reference list

    Add editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s), if any, if listed on title page in addition to author(s). When no author appears on the title page, a work is listed by the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s), or translator(s). The abbreviation Ed. or Eds., comp. or comps., or trans. follows the name, preceded by a comma.

    The editor(s) provide technical and scientific expertise in the development of technical books, and assure that the content follows the approved scope of the publication.

    [2]    A. W. Alsabti and P. Murdin, Eds., Handbook of Supernovae. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2017.

    Include comp. or comps. for manuscripts or other work comprising previously published material that has been compiled.

    [3]    G. Young, comp., A Practical Course in Basic Electronics. Werribee, Victoria, Australia: College Publications, 2005.

    Include trans. for translated works.

    [4]    Y. D. Ephraim, trans., Speech Signal Processing. Berlin: Springer, 2013.

    Books

    Book chapter (in an edited book)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Heat transfer is essential to nearly every industrial and environmental process [2].

    Hottel and Siegel [2] contend that heat transfer . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Heat transfer is a process by which heat flows from hot to cold regions" [2, p. 11].

    Reference list

    When citing a book chapter make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of the chapter," in Title of the Book, ed. (edition, except the first), vol. (volume, if available). Ed. or Eds. (editor(s) if available). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known': Publisher, Year of Publication, ch. (chapter number), pp. chapter/s or first and last pages of the article.

    [2]    H. C. Hottel and R. Siegel, "Film condensation," in Handbook of Heat Transfer, 2nd ed. W. C. McAdams, Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011, ch. 9, pp. 78-99.

    Books

    Electronic book (without DOI)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Power supplies are electronic circuits designed to supply other electronic circuits or applications with electric energy [2].

    The national approval signs printed on power transformers are detailed by Schmidt-Walter and Kories [2].

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    "Transformers convert the mains voltage to a lower level and realise the electrical isolation between the mains and the low voltage" [2, p. 469].

    "Leadership involves reaching beyond the current body of knowledge or accepted facts, processes, and rituals and having the courage to move beyond the status quo" [3, Ch. 5, para. 6].

    Reference list

    When citing e-books from a database without a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of the E-book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file (database homepage or e-book's URL)

    [2]    H. Schmidt-Walter and R. Kories, Electrical Engineering: A Pocket Reference, Boston: Artech House, 2007. Accessed on: Oct. 16, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

    [3]    H. H. Gaynor, Leading and Managing Engineering and Technology, Book 2: Developing Managers and Leaders, IEEE-USA, 2011. Accessed on: Oct. 15, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ieeeusa.org/communications/ebooks/files/sep14/n2n802/Leading-and-Managing-Engineering-and-Technology-Book-2.pdf

    Books

    Electronic book (with DOI)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The lifecycle cost analysis can be applied when selecting design alternatives [2].

    Kelly, Luke, and Wright [2] suggest the lifecycle cost analysis when selecting design alternatives.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "ASCE has advocated for the broad use of lifecycle cost analysis since 1997" [2, p. 71].

    Reference list

    When citing an electronic book with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of the E-book, ed. (edition, except the first). Place of Publication City, (abbrev. U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'): Publisher, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

    [2]    W. E. Kelly, B. Luke, and R. N. Wright, Engineering for Sustainable Communities: Principles and Practices. Reston: American Society of Civil Engineers, 2017. Accessed on: Apr. 2, 2018. [Online]. doi: 10.1061/9780784414811

    Books

    E-book from the internet

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Impulse, step and sinusoid signals are used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits [2].

    The signals used in the design and analysis of electrical and mechanical circuits are detailed by Scharf [2].

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    "The sinusoid is an idealized signal that models excitations that oscillate with a regular frequency" [2, Ch. 5, para. 5].

    Reference list

    When citing e-books from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Book, ed. (edition, except the first). Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [2]    L. Scharf, A First Course in Electrical and Computer Engineering, 2012. Accessed on: May 20, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.freetechbooks.com/a-first-course-in-electrical-and-computer-engineering-t1038.html

    Journal articles

    Journal article with single author

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Mathematical fundamentals of the fractional calculus . . .[3].

    Kaczorek [3] formulated and solved . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Kaczorek concluded that the “Presented method can be extended to positive discrete-time linear systems and to fractional positive discrete-time linear systems with bounded inputs” [3, p. 1828].

    Reference list

    When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

    [3]    T. Kaczorek, “Minimum energy control of fractional positive electrical circuits,” Archives of Electrical Engineering, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 191-201, 2016.

    Journal articles

    Journal article with two or three authors

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    State all authors (up to three), using ‘and’ between the last two author family names when citing in-text.

    Numerous studies of engineers' information seeking behaviour have found . . .[3].

    Fidel and Green [3] contend that accessibility was the factor that influenced most of the engineers' selection of information sources.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Studies have shown repeatedly that engineers rely most heavily on internal sources for information, mainly on interpersonal communication with colleagues" [3, p. 564].

    Reference list

    List all authors (up to three), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

    When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

    [3]    M. Fidel and H. M. Green, “Engineers perception of information sources,” Inf. Process. Manage., vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 225-256, May 2015.

    Journal articles

    Journal article with four to six authors

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

    The information seeking begins with uncertainty and anxiety [3].

    Chanson et al. [3] formed the hypothesis that information seeking begins with uncertainty and anxiety.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Chanson et al. define uncertainty as “The cognitive state that causes visceral symptoms such as insecurity and anxiety” [3, p. 245].

    Reference list

    List all authors (up to six), separating the last two author names with ‘and’.

    When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

    [3]    F. Chanson, L. W. Burton, H. Cleveland, G. P. Luth, T. McCarthy, and H. M. Green, “The information-seeking practices of engineers,” J. Doc., vol. 34, no. 43, pp. 120-144, Apr. 2013.

    Journal articles

    Journal article with more than six authors

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    If citing more than three authors in-text, use the first family name listed followed by et al. (in italics).

    Software development methodologies are broadly divided into two categories, namely heavyweight and lightweight methodologies [3].

    Akbar et al. [3] proposed a new software development life cycle model, the “AZ-Model”.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Akbar et al. proposed the new model broadly divided into three phases, namely “The customer involvement phase, development phase, and releasing phase” [3. p. 4820].

    Reference list

    If there are more than six authors listed, use et al. (in italics) after the first author’s family name.

    When citing journal articles make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author initials. Family name, "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

    [3]    M. A. Akbar et al., “Improving the quality of software development process by introducing a new methodology: A-Z model,” IEEE Access, vol. 6, pp. 4811-4823, Dec. 2017.

    Journal articles

    Electronic journal article with a DOI

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The concept of using infrared imaging to assess performance of residential solar systems has a threefold appeal [3].

    Carlson et al. [3] describe a remote method for finding non-operational solar thermal collector panels.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Flyby aerial surveys of residential areas with thermal imaging to visualize energy losses and promote energy conservation have a long history" [3, p. 163].

    Reference list

    When citing e-journal articles with a DOI make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. DOI

    [3]    J. Carlson, D. Menicucci, P. Vorobieff, A. Mammoli, and H. He, “Infrared imaging method for flyby assessment of solar thermal panel operation in field settings,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 163-171, Sept. 2014. Accessed on: Mar. 19, 2018. [Online]. doi: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.05.008

    Journal articles

    Electronic journal article from a library database

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Quantum dots, also known as nanoparticles, are small enough to exhibit quantum mechanical properties [3].

    Frishberg and Gobble [3] contend that quantum dots will power the next generation of computers.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "Rapidly evolving semiconductor technologies have reduced the size of the chips that drive most modern devices" [3, p. 7].

    Reference list

    When citing e-journal articles from a library database make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: database homepage URL

    [3]    M. Frishberg and M. M. Gobble, “Quantum dots: beyond solar cells,” Research Technology Management, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 7-8, May/June 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 13, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://ebscohost.com

    Journal articles

    Electronic journal article (internet article)

    The IEEE Referencing Style requires the abbreviation of journal titles in a reference. Check IEEE Abbreviations for Transactions, Journals, Letters, and Magazines Opens in new window or the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window to locate the correct abbreviation.

    For example, the official title abbreviation for the International Journal of Advanced Materials Research, as cross-checked in CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool Opens in new window is Int. J. Adv. Mater. Res.

    Other examples include:

    Note: If you cannot locate the journal title in either of these databases, you can spell out the name of the journal title in full.

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Current automobiles may have as many as fifty electronic control units (ECU) for various subsystems [3].

    Mounika, Roy, and Ali [3] have implemented industrial parameter control through CAN protocol by using PIC microcontroller.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "The Controller Area Network (CAN) is a serial, asynchronous, multi-master communication protocol for connecting electronic control modules in automobile and industrial applications" [3, p. 1249].

    Reference list

    When citing e-journal articles from the internet make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [3]    C. H. Mounika, K. S. Roy, and M. Ali, “Motor speed control based on temperature using CAN protocol,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, Apr. 2013. Accessed on: Oct. 28, 2015. [Online]. Available: http://www.ijettjournal.org/volume-4/issue-4/IJETT-V4I4P348.pdf

    Magazines

    Magazine article, print

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The plane will have greater payload capacity if the energy storage system is lighter [4].

    When considering reduction of payload capacity, Burke [4] concluded that the weight reduction of the energy storage system would be beneficial.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    "The lighter the energy storage system, the greater the payload the plane will be able to carry and sustain in flight" [4, p. 33].

    Reference list

    When citing magazine articles from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year.

    [4]    K. A. Burke, “High energy density regenerative fuel cells systems for terrestrial applications,” IEEE Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag., vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 23-34, Dec. 1999.

    Magazines

    Magazine article, online

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    As mentioned in [4], new machines will be as adaptable as our brains.

    It is Rothganger’s [4] hypothesis that machines will become more like humans.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Rothganger describes artificial intelligence as "the dream of a thinking machine" [4, p. 24].

    Reference list

    When citing magazine articles from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Magazine, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), pp. first and last pages of the article, abbrev. Month (if available). Year. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

    [4]    F. Rothganger, “Special report: can we copy the brain? The dawn of the real thinking machine,” IEEE Spectr., vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 22-25, May 2017. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Online]. Available: IEEE database

    Conferences

    Published conference or proceedings paper

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    A new software based application could improve fire safety in residential properties [6].

    A new software based application was recommended by Ayubi, Miao and Shi [6] to improve fire safety in residential properties.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    “The block based environment should be able to connect to excel to fetch the contact details; otherwise only being able to define workflow in the form of sequence of communication blocks is not fruitful” [6, pp. 677 – 678].

    Reference list

    When citing a published conference or proceedings paper make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of paper," in abbrev. Title of Proceedings, Place of Conference/Publication, (vol., no. if available), Year (only if not already stated in title), pp. first and last pages of paper.

    [6]    S. Ayubi, Y. Miao, and H. Shi, "Automating standalone smoke alarms for early remote notifications," in 13th Int. Conf. on Cont. Automa. Robotics & Vision (ICARCV), Marina Bay Sands, Singapore, Dec. 2014, pp. 675-680.

    Conferences

    Unpublished conference or proceedings paper

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    A new method for system identification using Extended Kalman Filter is discussed in [4].

    Best [4] discusses a new method for system identification by utilising a simplified Extended Kalman Filter.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    “The filter identifies a linear model of any order from multiple input and multiple output data sources alone, without the need for any understanding of the underlying system dynamics” [4, p. 7].

    Reference list

    When citing an unpublished conference or proceedings paper make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of paper, presented at the abbrev. Title and Year of Conference. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [4]    M. C. Best, "Linear MIMO model identification using an extended Kalman filter," presented at the ICMICE 2015: 17th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control Engineering. Accessed on: Nov. 17, 2013. [Online]. Available: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/17386

    Reports

    Report, print (individual author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The report outlined the opportunity for councils to develop . . . [6].

    The development of the road management practices outlined by Verity and Roorda [6] in the report will ensure . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    The Road Management Report was prepared to “Provide information and advice to Council, summarising the findings and recommendations of the Road Management Plan Working Group" [6, p. 3].

    Reference list

    When citing reports from a print source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number/Type (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

    [6]    S. Verity and J. Roorda, “Road Management Report: Road Asset Benchmarking Project 2014,” NSW Institute of Public Works Engineering Australia, Sydney, NSW, Working Paper 240, Nov. 2015.

    Reports

    Report, print (corporate author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The roles and mission of NASA centre scientists are fully discussed in [6].

    In its report, NASA [6] presents observations regarding these issues [6].

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    This will become even more critical in “A new, leaner NASA, with its increased emphasis on NASA-university-industry partnerships" [6, p. 2].

    Reference list

    When citing reports from a print source with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Organisation/company name, "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number/Type (if available), abbrev. Month. (Day if available), Year of Publication.

    [6]    NASA, “Lunar Sample Studies,” NASA, Washington, DC, Rep. 1, 1977.

    Reports

    Report, electronic (individual author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The report [6] explores autonomous vehicle costs and benefits, and investigates how quickly self-driving vehicles are likely to be developed and deployed.

    Litman [6] investigates how quickly self-driving vehicles are likely to be developed and deployed based on experience with previous autonomous-vehicle technologies.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Litman states that “Autonomous vehicle implementation could be slower and less complete than optimistic predictions” [6, p. 18].

    Reference list

    When citing reports from an electronic source with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report Number (if not in title), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [6]    T. A. Litman, “Autonomous Vehicle Implementation Predictions: Implications for Transport Planning,” Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Apr. 24, 2018. Accessed on: Apr. 30, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.vtpi.org/avip.pdf

    Reports

    Report, online (corporate author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Java is used by more than 9 million developers to create applications for everything from smart cards and intelligent Internet of Things (IoT) devices to enterprise servers and the cloud [6].

    Oracle [6] still continues to heavily invest in the Java platform, as it remains the world’s #1 programming language.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Oracle emphasises the importance of open standards and open technology strategies, which has resulted in its IT solutions being “Complete, open and integrated” [6, p. 40].

    Reference list

    When citing reports from an online source with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of Report," Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Report number (if not in title), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [6]    The Oracle Corporation, “Corporate Citizenship Report 2014,” Oracle, Redwood Shores, CA, 2015. Accessed on Dec. 5, 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.oracle.com/us/corporate/citizenship/corporate-citizenship-report-2563684.pdf

    Handbooks or manuals

    Handbook or manual (print)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The rules set in [7] apply to all persons working on or near high voltage and low voltage electrical apparatus associated with Essential Energy’s electricity network.

    Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual [7] delineates the general principles for work on or near isolated low voltage exposed conductors.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Low Voltage (LV) is defined as “A nominal voltage exceeding 50 volts alternating current or 120 volts direct current, but not exceeding 1000 volts alternating current or 1500 volts direct current” [7, p. 12].

    Reference list

    When citing print handbooks or manuals make sure to include the following information where available:

    Title of Manual/Handbook, ed. (edition, except the first). Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Year of Publication.

    [7]    Audel Electrician's Pocket Manual, 2nd ed. Wiley Pub., Indianapolis, IN, 2003.

    Handbooks or manuals

    Handbook or manual (electronic)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the author's name.

    The rules set in [7] apply to all persons working on or near high voltage and low voltage electrical apparatus associated with Essential Energy’s electricity network.

    The Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030 [7] govern the Essential Energy’s work practices to ensure all its employees or persons, including visitors and contractors, comply with its safety policies and procedures.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Low Voltage (LV) is defined as “A nominal voltage exceeding 50 volts alternating current or 120 volts direct current, but not exceeding 1000 volts alternating current or 1500 volts direct current” [7, p. 12].

    Reference list

    When citing electronic handbooks or manuals make sure to include the following information where available:

    Title of Manual/Handbook, ed. (edition, except the first). Publisher, Place of Publication City, (abbrev. US State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [7]    Electrical Safety Rules CEOP8030, no. 15. Essential Energy, Aug. 15, 2017. Accessed on: May. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: http://documents.essentialenergy.com.au/CEOP8030.pdf

    Webpages

    Webpage (individual author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Scientists are considering the ways of developing new materials for the future by investigating the wood formation process [8].

    While wood continues to be a mainstay in the building industry, Holland’s [8] latest research implies a development of a range of new wood-inspired materials in the future.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    The system that can induce secondary wall cellulose formation in all cells of a plant uses “A master regulator, or a transcription factor, that switches on genes in the plant that are specific for wood production” [8, para. 16].

    Reference list

    When citing webpages with an individual author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Webpage, Publisher/Production information (if relevant), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [7]    D. Holland, Finding the Building Blocks of Wood, The University of Melbourne, June 6, 2018. Accessed on: June 18, 2018. [Online]. Available: https://pursuit.unimelb.edu.au/articles/finding-the-building-blocks-of-wood?utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_medium=social&utm_content=story

    Webpages

    Webpage (corporate author)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    As part of the country’s goal to use renewable energy, Hydro Tasmania’s specialist power and water consulting firm is helping the Cook Islands reduce reliance on diesel fuel [8].

    Engineers Australia [8] has highlighted the Government’s commitment to addressing the climate change challenge.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    Engineers Australia reports that “Climate change poses a particular risk to the Cook Islands due to sea level rise, extreme rainfall events, storm surges, strong winds and extreme high air temperatures” [8, para. 6].

    Reference list

    When citing webpages with a corporate author make sure to include the following information where available:

    Organisation/Company name, Title of Webpage, Publisher/Production information (if relevant), abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [7]    Engineers Australia, Cook Islands Renewable Energy, Engineers Australia, Engineering House, Barton, ACT, Australia, July 15, 2015. Accessed on: Oct. 3, 2017. [Online]. Available: https://www.engineersaustralia.org.au/portal/news/cook-islands-renewable-energy

    Audiovisual media

    DVD

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    In [9], explored are some of the world’s most ambitious engineering marvels.

    Hammond [9] investigates how it was possible to build humanity’s greatest engineering marvels.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

    Hammond explores the hidden architecture of each structure to expose “An incredible array of ideas, technologies and sometimes bizarre inventions that span history” [9].

    Reference list

    When citing a DVD make sure to include the following information where available:

    Producer(s) Initial(s). Surname(s), Title of DVD, xth ed. [Type of medium]. Production City, (U.S. State or Country if the City is not "well known"): Production Company, Year of Production.

    Note: If no Producer(s) are stated, use Director(s) instead.

    [9]    R. Hammond, Engineering Connections, Series Three. [DVD]. Collingwood, Australia: Special Broadcasting Service Corporation, 2011.

    Audiovisual media

    Streaming video

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Glass architecture is today prevalent more than ever [9].

    Michael Blackwood Productions [9] reveal a new product that is replacing the glass used just twenty years ago.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

    As seen in [9], “As a highly engineered product, glass has emerged in a new light as an apparently culturally accepted material in design and construction”.

    Reference list

    When citing a streaming video make sure to include the following information where available:

    Production company, Title of Video, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

    [9]    Michael Blackwood Productions, Engineered Transparency: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2007. Accessed on: Feb. 18, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Kanopy Streaming database

    Audiovisual media

    Video tutorial

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Every computer program is a series of instructions, that is, a sequence of separate small commands, one after the other [9].

    Allardice [9] asserts that there have been hundreds of programming languages since the start of computing.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

    As explained in [9, para. 6], “We write the source code that will at some point be translated then into machine code, so it can run on the computer”.

    Reference list

    When citing a video tutorial make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), Title of Video Tutorial, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: name of database

    [9]    S. Allardice, Programming Foundations: Fundamentals, Sept. 22, 2011. Accessed on: June 3, 2018. [Streaming video]. Available: Lynda.com database

    Audiovisual media

    Audio podcast

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    At a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale [8].

    Schiffrin [8] states that at a tiny scale, and contrary to our expectations, material acts differently than at a larger scale.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

    According to Schiffrin, "We can look at a chunk of material, but at a small scale, and it behaves completely differently than what we might expect" [8].

    Reference list

    When citing an audio podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

    Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [8]    A. Schiffrin, “Materials go nano,” Science Extra, Jan. 8, 2017. Sydney, Australia: ABC Radio National. Accessed on: May 12, 2017. [Podcast]. Available: http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/scienceextra/materials-go-nano/8117286

    Audiovisual media

    Video podcast

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    As women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science [8].

    Dhopade et al. [8] state, since women see things or think differently, they contribute different ideas to science.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: A timestamp is NOT required when directly quoting from this type of source.

    "Women do bring a different perspective to science and they think about things a little bit differently" [8].

    Reference list

    When citing a video podcast make sure to include the following information where available:

    Presenter(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of podcast,” Title of Show, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Production. Place of Production City, abbrev. US State (if applicable), Country: Producer. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [8]    P. Dhopade, S. Ober-Blobaum, E. Stride, A. Castro-Castellon, and E. Watson, “Women in engineering,” Women in Science, Aug. 1, 2016. Oxford, United Kingdom: University of Oxford. Accessed on May 12, 2017. [Vodcast]. Available: https://www.podcasts.ox.ac.uk/women-engineering

    Other sources

    Blog

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs [9].

    Pterneas [9] relates that updating the Kinect software has enabled the creators to track a maximum of 25 body joints; 20% more than the first version, and now including fists and thumbs.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

    "The initial version of Kinect allowed us to track up to 20 body joints. The second version allows up to 25 joints. The new joints include the fists and thumbs!" [9].

    Reference list

    When citing a blog make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of blog post,” Title of Blog, abbrev. Month. Day, Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [9]    V. Pterneas, “Kinect for windows version 2: body tracking,” Vangos Pterneas, Mar. 13, 2014. Accessed on: June 2, 2017. [Blog]. Available: http://pterneas.com/2014/03/13kinect-for-windows-version-2-body-tracking/

    Other sources

    Lecture notes

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The issue was highlighted in [6] indicating how necessary it is to consider ....

    Reference list

    When citing lecture notes make sure to include the following information where available:

    Lecturer(s) initial(s). Family name(s), Class Lecture, Topic: "Lecture title." Unit Code, College/Faculty, University, Location, Abbrev. Month, Day, Year.

    [6] V. Navaratnam, Class Lecture, Topic: "Electric circuits briefing.” NEF1204, College of Engineering and Science, Victoria University, Melbourne, Aug., 12, 2015.

    Other sources

    Figures, tables and equations

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets.

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) performance is directly related to its congestion control mechanism [10].

    If citing a Figure in-text: For more details, refer to [10, Fig. 4].

    If citing a table in-text: For more details, refer to [10, Tab. 2].

    Or, if citing an equation in text: For more details, refer to [10, eq. (2)].

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    “Simulation time for each experiment test is set to 300 seconds and no background traffic is used” [10, p. 4].

    Reference list

    The reference of the figure, table or equation is included in the reference list in accordance with the source format within which this information is provided. Reference the book, journal article, report or another source where the figure, table or equation appeared.

    For example, reference the journal article source format for the figure, table or the equation in the above example.

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of article," abbrev. Title of Journal, vol. (volume number), no. (issue number), page or pages where the figure, table or equation appeared, abbrev. Month (if available). Year of Publication.

    [10]    M. Ahmad, S. Jabbar, A. Ahmad, F. Piccialli, and G. Jeon, "A sustainable solution to support data security in high bandwidth healthcare remote locations by using TCP CUBIC mechanism," IEEE Trans. Sustain. Comput., vol. 20, no. 20, p. 4, May 2016.

    Other sources

    Patents (print)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    An alternating-current magneto-machine was used as the source of supply [10].

    In carrying out his invention, Tesla [10] provided a series of inducing-coils and corresponding induced coils which he wound upon an annulus or the subdivided ring.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    “The invention relates to those systems of electrical distribution in which a current from a single source of supply in a main or transmitting circuit is caused to induce a current or currents in an independent working circuit or circuits” [10, para. 2].

    Reference list

    When citing a patent from a print source make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), “Title of patent,” Patent's country of origin and number, abbrev. Month. Day, Year.

    [10]    N. Tesla, "System of electrical distribution," United States Patent 390413, Oct. 2, 1888.

    Other sources

    Patents (online)

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    A fixing system for an electric plate has been proposed [10].

    Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. [10] recognised that improvements are possible.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    Note: If no page numbers are listed then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers where appropriate.

    “The fixing system for an electrical plate provides manifold advantages” [10, Sec. 5].

    Reference list

    When citing a patent from an online source make sure to include the following information where available:

    Invention name, by Inventor(s) Initial(s). Family name(s). (Year, abbrev. Month. Day). Patent Number. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file (or database name)

    [10]    Fixing system for an electrical plate, by Legrand Australia Pty Ltd. (2016, Dec. 22). Patent 2016905338. Accessed on: Feb. 1, 2018. [Online]. Available: AustPat database

    Other sources

    Personal communication

    Examples of personal communication include:

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    The research philosophy reflects the authors’ beliefs in gathering, analysing, and using data about the BIM implementation in Australia [10].

    Khosrowshahi [10] analyses the current readiness and maturity level of Australia’s construction industry to adopt BIT.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

    The research “attempts to apply the existing knowledge about BIM in its implementation in Australia” [10].

    Reference list

    When citing a personal communication make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), private communication, abbrev. Month. Year.

    [10]    F. Khosrowshahi, private communication, Apr. 2018.

    Other sources

    Standards

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the organisation in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the organisation name.

    Safe work practices on or near low-voltage electrical installations and equipment were outlined in [10].

    Australian/New Zealand Standards [10] addressed the requirement for safe work on or near low-voltage electrical installations and equipment.

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide the citation number in square brackets.

    Note: Page numbers are NOT required for this format type.

    The standard provides “A minimum set of procedures, safety requirements and recommendations to manage the hazards associated with electricity, specifically arc blast, arc flash, electric shock and electrocution” [10].

    Reference list

    When citing a standard make sure to include the following information where available:

    Title of Standard, Standard Number, Year.

    [10]    Safe Working on or Near Low-voltage Electrical Installations and Equipment, AS/NZS 4836:2011, 2011.

    Other sources

    Theses and dissertations

    Paraphrasing in-text

    When paraphrasing, include the citation number in square brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then include the citation number in square brackets immediately after the family name.

    Greenhouse gas emissions from human activity are the major cause for global warming [10].

    A reliable power discussed by Krishnan [10] is paramount . . .

    Direct quote in-text

    When directly quoting, place the quote in double quotation marks " " and provide both the citation number and the page number(s) from the source in square brackets.

    According to Krishnan, “A reliable power is paramount and loss of power to communication equipment can mean loss of service to clients and loss of millions of dollars to industries” [10, p. 10].

    Reference list

    When citing a thesis make sure to include the following information where available:

    Author(s) initials. Family name(s), "Title of thesis or dissertation," Type of thesis (Ph.D. dissertation or M.S. thesis), abbrev. Department, abbrev. University, Place of Publication City (U.S. State or Country if the City is not 'well known'), Year of Publication. Accessed on: abbrev. Month. Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available: site/path/file

    [10]    K. Jegathala Krishnan, “Implementation of renewable energy to reduce carbon consumption and fuel cell as a back-up power for national broadband network (NBN) in Australia,” Ph.D. dissertation, College of Eng. and Sc., Victoria Univ., Melbourne, Australia, 2013. Accessed on: June 16, 2017. [Online]. Available: http://vuir.vu.edu.au/25679/